Early Teleoperators, Exoskeletons and Industrial Robots

This page shows a timeline of significant events in the development of Teleoperators, Exoskeletons and Industrial Robots with dates showing the creation or announcement of these machines.

Check out the updates page for recent posts.

There are many way to sub-categorize Teleoperators, from remote manipulators, Man-amplifiers and exoskeletons, prosthetics and orthotics, through to walking machines. These days, this overall category comes under the general heading of Haptics. The Man-amplifiers when combined with Walking machines are now commonly called Mechas (Mekas), following the naming popularized by Japanese Anime.

Early Exoskeletons and Man-Amplifiers

Walking by steam Robert seymour pub by Thomas McLean 1830   Copy x80 Early Teleoperators, Exoskeletons and Industrial Robots1830c – Steam-assisted walker (Spoof) – Robert Seymour
Rinehart Walking Machine 1889 x80 Early Teleoperators, Exoskeletons and Industrial Robots1889- Rinehart Walking Machine
Yagn Exoskeleton 1890 p1 x80 Early Teleoperators, Exoskeletons and Industrial Robots
1890- Yagn Walking Apparatus
1904 Crosse Unicycle Walking Machine x80 Early Teleoperators, Exoskeletons and Industrial Robots
1904- Crosse Leg-Powered Unicycle
1904 Skorzewski walking apparatus x80 Early Teleoperators, Exoskeletons and Industrial Robots1904 – Skorzewski Walking Apparatus
1917 Pedomotor x80 Early Teleoperators, Exoskeletons and Industrial Robots 1917 - Steam-powered "Pedomotor" by Kelley
cobb 1934 walker orthosis x80 Early Teleoperators, Exoskeletons and Industrial Robots1934 – Cobb "wind-up" Lower extremity walker
Gizmo walker exo still p04   Copy x80(1) Early Teleoperators, Exoskeletons and Industrial RobotsGizmo Outboard-motor assisted walker
Lent powered suit 1956 x80 Early Teleoperators, Exoskeletons and Industrial Robots 1956- Mobile Space Suit – Lent
starship soldier FSF 5911 x80 Early Teleoperators, Exoskeletons and Industrial Robots1959 – "Starship Troopers" Power Suits – Robert Heinlein (Fiction)
Exoskeleton Man Amplifier concept cornell x80 Early Teleoperators, Exoskeletons and Industrial Robots1961-2- Man-Amplifier Cornell Aeronautical Labs – Neil Mizen
1961 – Yuri Gagarin becomes the first man in space.
Kultar Exoskeleton 1964 x80 Early Teleoperators, Exoskeletons and Industrial Robots 1964 – Body Support System – Kultsar
 Case arm electronics 65 x80 Early Teleoperators, Exoskeletons and Industrial Robots 1962 – Case Institute Externally Powered Orthosis
rancho rehab robotics age mj81 x80 Early Teleoperators, Exoskeletons and Industrial Robots 1964 – Rancho "Golden Arm" Powered Orthosis
Hardiman x80 Early Teleoperators, Exoskeletons and Industrial Robots1965-71- GE Hardiman I
Ambushers Powerloader x80 Early Teleoperators, Exoskeletons and Industrial Robots1967 – The Ambushers (Fiction)   
Exo Vukobratovic 1970 x80 Early Teleoperators, Exoskeletons and Industrial Robots1970-2 – Powered Exoskeleton – Vukobratovic
grundmann seireg exoskeleton x80 Early Teleoperators, Exoskeletons and Industrial Robots1972-3 – Grundmann & Seireg Exoskeleton
exo prosthesis  0002 x80 Early Teleoperators, Exoskeletons and Industrial Robots1976 – Pneumatic Exoskeleton Prosthesis – Pierre Rabischong
Shulman jogging machine 1978 p3 x640 x80 Early Teleoperators, Exoskeletons and Industrial Robots1978 – Shulman Jogging Machine
Power loader aliens p2 x80 Early Teleoperators, Exoskeletons and Industrial Robots 1986 – Power Loader – Aliens (Fictional)
Monty Reed Lifesuit P14 x80 Early Teleoperators, Exoskeletons and Industrial Robots 1987 – LIFESUIT – Exoskeleton – Monty Reed
Man Amplifier Rosheim p2 x80 Early Teleoperators, Exoskeletons and Industrial Robots1989- Man-Amplifier – Mark Rosheim
Springwalker1990 x80 Early Teleoperators, Exoskeletons and Industrial Robots1990 – SpringWalker
Power assist suit kanagawa 1990 x80 Early Teleoperators, Exoskeletons and Industrial Robots 1990 – Power-Assist Suit
Pitman concept px1 x80 Early Teleoperators, Exoskeletons and Industrial Robots1991- Pitman - Jeff Moore
Stelarc exoskeleton 1997 x80 Early Teleoperators, Exoskeletons and Industrial Robots 1998 – "Walking Machine" – Stelarc
 
21st Century
 
Electric springwalker 2000 x80 Early Teleoperators, Exoskeletons and Industrial Robots2000- Electric SpringWalker 
kazerooni extender arm x80 Early Teleoperators, Exoskeletons and Industrial Robots Kazerooni Human Extender
 2001 – DARPA $50 million 5-year exo program
Kobayashi Pneumatic muscle suit 2001 x80 Early Teleoperators, Exoskeletons and Industrial Robots2001- McKibben powered vests – Japanese
HAL 3 exoskeleton x80 Early Teleoperators, Exoskeletons and Industrial Robots 2002 – HAL-3 – Cyberdyne
Matrix 3 exoskeleton x80 Early Teleoperators, Exoskeletons and Industrial Robots 2003 – Matrix 3 Exo Suits (Fictional)
bleex exoskeleton x80 Early Teleoperators, Exoskeletons and Industrial Robots 2004 – BLEEX – Kazerooni
 2004-5 Servo Mag Tetsujin competition
HAL 5 exoskeleton x80 Early Teleoperators, Exoskeletons and Industrial Robots 2005 – HAL 5
iron man x80 Early Teleoperators, Exoskeletons and Industrial Robots 2008 – Iron Man exoskeleton (Fictional)
XOS exoskeleton x80 Early Teleoperators, Exoskeletons and Industrial Robots 2008 – XOS – Sarcos-Raytheron
power assist suit x80 Early Teleoperators, Exoskeletons and Industrial Robots 2008 – Power-assist suit (Japan)
HULC exoskeleton x80 Early Teleoperators, Exoskeletons and Industrial Robots 2009 – HULC – Locheed Martin
Panasonic power loader 2009 x80 Early Teleoperators, Exoskeletons and Industrial Robots 2009 – Panasonic Power Loader
District 9 exoskeleton x80 Early Teleoperators, Exoskeletons and Industrial Robots 2009 – District 9 Exoskeleton (Fictional)
XOS 2 exoskeleton x80 Early Teleoperators, Exoskeletons and Industrial Robots 2010 – XOS 2 – Sarcos-Raytheon
Avatar Exoskeleton x80 Early Teleoperators, Exoskeletons and Industrial Robots 2010 – Avatar (Fictional)
Panasonic Exo Skeleton jacket 2010 x80 Early Teleoperators, Exoskeletons and Industrial Robots 2010 Panasonic Power Jacket
 

Early Teleoperated Walking Machines 

Pedipulator  Walker S MFeb63 x80 Early Teleoperators, Exoskeletons and Industrial Robots1962 – GE Pedipulator - Ralph Mosher          
GE Walking Truck Mosher x80 Early Teleoperators, Exoskeletons and Industrial Robots1969 – GE Walking Truck – Ralph Mosher
mobile suit gundam 1979 x80 Early Teleoperators, Exoskeletons and Industrial Robots 1978-9 – Mobile Suit Gundam
Springwalker1990 x80 Early Teleoperators, Exoskeletons and Industrial Robots1990 – SpringWalker
Power loader aliens p2 x80 Early Teleoperators, Exoskeletons and Industrial Robots 1986 – Power Loader – Aliens (Fictional)
Stelarc exoskeleton 1997 x80 Early Teleoperators, Exoskeletons and Industrial Robots 1998 – "Walking Machine" – Stelarc
 
21st Century
 
Electric springwalker 2000 x80 Early Teleoperators, Exoskeletons and Industrial Robots2000- Electric SpringWalker 
Matrix 3 exoskeleton x80 Early Teleoperators, Exoskeletons and Industrial Robots 2003 – Matrix 3 Exo Suits (Fictional)
District 9 exoskeleton x80 Early Teleoperators, Exoskeletons and Industrial Robots 2009 – District 9 Alien Exoskeleton (Fictional)
Avatar Exoskeleton x80 Early Teleoperators, Exoskeletons and Industrial Robots 2010 – Avatar (Fictional)            
                   

Early Remote Mobile Manipulators

little ranger x80 Early Teleoperators, Exoskeletons and Industrial Robots1961 – "The Little Ranger" Remote Mobile  Manipulator

 

Early Master-Slave Manipulator

   – Early Anthropomorphic Remote Control

 
   – No Force-Feedback
 
  
  - Force-Feedback           
 
Goertz prototype Manipulator x80 Early Teleoperators, Exoskeletons and Industrial Robots 1954 – ElectroMechanical Manipulator – Ray Goertz
Goertz Telechir x80 Early Teleoperators, Exoskeletons and Industrial Robots 1958 – Remote Servo-manipulator by Ray Goertz et al.
GE CAM boom x80 Early Teleoperators, Exoskeletons and Industrial Robots1965 – GE Boom
 
Early Teleoperators in Space
-Unmanned
lockheed schmoo 1964 x80 Early Teleoperators, Exoskeletons and Industrial Robots 1964 – SCHMOO (Concept) – Lockheed
ge remote manip space 1968 x80 Early Teleoperators, Exoskeletons and Industrial Robots 1968 – Android Space Manipulator (Concept) – GE
free flyer cover detail 72 x80 Early Teleoperators, Exoskeletons and Industrial Robots 1972 – "Free Flyer" with Manipulators – NASA/Bell/Rancho Los Amigos
RAM 72 illus x80 Early Teleoperators, Exoskeletons and Industrial Robots 1972 – Rancho Anthropomorphic Manipulator (RAM) – Rancho Los Amigos Hospital/NASA
ESAM manipulator x80 Early Teleoperators, Exoskeletons and Industrial Robots 1972 – Extentible Stiff Arm Manipulator (ESAM) – MSFC
Daedalus Construction Concepts x80 Early Teleoperators, Exoskeletons and Industrial Robots 1973-8 –Daedalus 'Wardens' – T. J. Grant et al
fts grumman 87 x80 Early Teleoperators, Exoskeletons and Industrial Robots 1987 – Flight Telerobotic Servicer (FTS) – Grumman
telerobots 87 88 x80 Early Teleoperators, Exoskeletons and Industrial Robots 1987 – Flight Telerobotic Servicer (FTS) – Martin Marietta
 
-Manned
buergle 1949 x80 Early Teleoperators, Exoskeletons and Industrial Robots 1949 – Space Tug (Illustration) by Klaus Bürgle
braun bottle 01 x80 Early Teleoperators, Exoskeletons and Industrial Robots 1954 – von Braun "Space Bottle"
lockheed space tug 1963 x80 Early Teleoperators, Exoskeletons and Industrial Robots 1958 – Astrotug – Lockheed
spacepod o 9 1961 x80 Early Teleoperators, Exoskeletons and Industrial Robots 1959-61 – Concept O-9 Manned Utility Tug
homobile 1960  x80 Early Teleoperators, Exoskeletons and Industrial Robots 1960 – "Homobile" Lunar Rover by Hugo Gernsback
pod mercury x80 Early Teleoperators, Exoskeletons and Industrial Robots 1960 – Mercury Converted Space Capsule (Concept) – Douglas Aircraft
bell remora manipulator x80 Early Teleoperators, Exoskeletons and Industrial Robots 1960 – Bell "Remora"
Martin SLOMAR tug 1960 x80 Early Teleoperators, Exoskeletons and Industrial Robots 1960 – SLOMAR Tug – Martin
baker p28a GMills  x80 Early Teleoperators, Exoskeletons and Industrial Robots 1960 – Space Manipulators (Concepts) – General Mills
1961, April 12 – Yuri Gagarin becomes the first man in space.
spacepod Lockheed x80 Early Teleoperators, Exoskeletons and Industrial Robots 1961 – Space Pod (Concept) – Lockheed
pod Norair x80 Early Teleoperators, Exoskeletons and Industrial Robots 1961 – Space Maintenance Capsule & Adapter – NORAIR
douglas humpty dumpty pod x80 Early Teleoperators, Exoskeletons and Industrial Robots 1961 – Humpty Dumpty (Concept) – Douglas Aircraft Co.
baker p24a GE   Copy x80 Early Teleoperators, Exoskeletons and Industrial Robots 1961 – Orbital Space Tug (Concept) – GE
spacePod boeing 1965 x80 Early Teleoperators, Exoskeletons and Industrial Robots 1965 – Space Pod (Concept) – Boeing
1967 space horse 1967 x80 Early Teleoperators, Exoskeletons and Industrial Robots 1966-7 – Space Horse (Concept) – LTV
MSFC space taxi x80 Early Teleoperators, Exoskeletons and Industrial Robots 1966-7 – Space Taxi (Concept) – LTV
bendix work platform x80 Early Teleoperators, Exoskeletons and Industrial Robots 1967 – Space Work Platform (Concept) – Bendix
2001podTb x80 Early Teleoperators, Exoskeletons and Industrial Robots 1965-8 – Space Pod – 2001-A Space Odyssey
nasa stem p141a x80 Early Teleoperators, Exoskeletons and Industrial Robots 1968 – STEM Remote Space Manipulator (Concept) – Spar Aerospace
serpentuator msfc x80 Early Teleoperators, Exoskeletons and Industrial Robots 1968 – Serpentuator – MSFC

1969, July 20 – First moon landing.

space tug crew module MSFC 1970 x80 Early Teleoperators, Exoskeletons and Industrial Robots 1970 – Space Tug (Concept) – MSFC/Boeing
rmsdemo1 x80(1) Early Teleoperators, Exoskeletons and Industrial Robots 1971-2 – Apollo-Soyuz Shuttle Manipulator (Concept) – NASA/Johnson
boeing space manipulator 1976  x80 Early Teleoperators, Exoskeletons and Industrial Robots 1976 – Space Manipulator – Boeing
POWER multi segments 88 x80 Early Teleoperators, Exoskeletons and Industrial Robots 1986 – P.O.W.E.R. Flexible Robot Arm
 
Early Industrial Robots
Pre-Robot Manipulators
 
babbitt crane 1892 1 x80 Early Teleoperators, Exoskeletons and Industrial Robots 1892 – Babbitt Crane for Furnaces
iron hand 1 x80 Early Teleoperators, Exoskeletons and Industrial Robots c1950 – "The Iron Hand"
PM1950 GE Robot x80 Early Teleoperators, Exoskeletons and Industrial Robots 1950 – GE Manipulator – Manual or remote control.
 
First Re-Programmable Machines and Industrial Robots
 
jacquard loom[1] x80 Early Teleoperators, Exoskeletons and Industrial Robots 1801 – Jacquard Loom
 1873 – "Automat" Cam-operated Lathe by Christopher Spencer
pollard 34 spray paint robot x80 Early Teleoperators, Exoskeletons and Industrial Robots 1934 – Programmable Spray-painting patent by Pollard Jr.
Robot Gargantua 1937 x80 Early Teleoperators, Exoskeletons and Industrial Robots 1935-7 – "The Robot Gargantua" by 'Bill' Griffith P. Taylor - First 'pick-and-place' Robot.
pollard spray painting patent 38  x80 Early Teleoperators, Exoskeletons and Industrial Robots 1938, April – Automated positional spray-painting patent by Pollard Sr.
roselund spray painting patent 39 x80 Early Teleoperators, Exoskeletons and Industrial Robots 1939, August – Roselund filed his automated spray-painting patent.
 1941 – Isaac Asimov, aged 21 in May 1941, invents the word 'Robotics' in a robot story entitled "Liar!".
 1947 – Del Harder, a Ford executive, coins the word "Automation".
kenward robot 52 x80 Early Teleoperators, Exoskeletons and Industrial Robots 1954, March – The Brit Cyril Kenward filed his " Positioning or Manipulating Apparatus" patent.
Devol patent 1954 x80 Early Teleoperators, Exoskeletons and Industrial Robots 1954, December – Devol's "Programmed Article Transfer" patent filed and granted in 1961.
planetbot rosheim x80(1) Early Teleoperators, Exoskeletons and Industrial Robots 1955 – "PLANOBOT" by Joe Brown
transferobot ad 1962 x80 Early Teleoperators, Exoskeletons and Industrial Robots 1959 – "TransfeRobot" by Shelley
 1959 – Working Robot and Prototype Unimate by Devol & Engelberger
versatran Robot x80 Early Teleoperators, Exoskeletons and Industrial Robots 1960 – "Versatran"
Unimate Schodt  x80 Early Teleoperators, Exoskeletons and Industrial Robots 1961 – 1st "Unimate", installed at GM
 1962 – "Unimation" formed by Devol and Engelberger
fleximan robot 63 x80 Early Teleoperators, Exoskeletons and Industrial Robots 1962 – "Fleximan" by  Anthony Kaye
trallfa spray paint robot 1 x80(1) Early Teleoperators, Exoskeletons and Industrial Robots 1965-7 – Ole Molaug developed his Trallfa spray-paint robot. First production run in 1967. Now ABB
1967 – Unimation agreement with Kawasaki Triggered the Japanese robot industry
1971 – Cincinnati Milacron launched the first mini computer controlled robot T3
1974 – ASEA IRB-6 First Electric-powered Industrial Robot
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