Early Pneumatic, Fluidic and Inflatable Robots

This page contains a timeline showing Early Pneumatic, Fluidic and Inflatable Robots.

If image is clickable, then a blog post exists for it. Check out the updates page for recent posts.

Pneumatic Robots
1875- “Psycho” Card Playing Automaton
 1928 – “Gakutensoku” by Makoto Nishimura
 1957-8 – Joe McKibben “Artificial Muscle”
 Early Pneumatic Actuator Patents
1959-61 Concept O-16 Gas-actuated Parallelogram Grappler
 1966 – Philco “Lunar Worm” Concept
 1967 – B.F. Goodrich “Rubber Muscle
1968 – Polish Artificial Muscle Bioprosthesis
 1969-71 – Waseda Pneumatic Walking robots
 1973 – Japanese “Babot” – Shiro Takahashi
1976 – Pneumatic Exoskeleton Prosthesis – Pierre Rabischong
 1978 – Clark – Balloon End-effector
 1979 – The “Simrit Finger” bending actuator
 1979 – Jim Whiting – Pneumatic android
 1989 – Paynter – Arthrobots
 1996 – Autopod Hybrid Walker
 1999 – Festo “Fluidic Muscle”
  2005 – OmniTread Snakebot OM-8
  2011 – Soft-robot Harvard -new
  2012 – Fraunhofer researchers – Bellows Spider Robot
Pneumatic Dynamic Structures
  2000 – Festo “Airtecture”
  2005 – Kas Oosterhuis “MuscleBody”
 2006 – Chico MacMurtrie / Amorphic Robot Works – various
Inflatable Personal Robots & Toys 
  Remote-controlled Toys
 2011 – Remote-controlled Flying Fish.
Inflatable Art Machines
 1979 – Jim Whiting – Pneumatic Android Sculptures
 Jim Whiting – Pneumatic Grasshopper
  2001 – Tim Hawkinson – “Überorgen”
 2001-6 –  Theo Jansen – “Vaporum” Pneumatic Strandbeest
 2003 – Stelarc – Muscle Machine