Archive for the ‘Early Mobile Robots’ Category

1959 – Lunar Robot Mobot (Concept) – Hughes Aircraft (American)

 1959   Lunar Robot Mobot (Concept)   Hughes Aircraft (American)

MACHINE TO EXPLORE MOON

FIRST EXPLORER of the moon may be a machine. Roaming the crust, it would collect samples of rocks and dust with mechanical fingers, under remote control of spacemen remaining safely within a landed rocket ship. Hughes Aircraft company designers say it could be patterned closely after their Mobot, a mobile mechanical manipulator whose dexterity inspired the idea.

Source: Popular Science July, 1959.


Mobot 1 Hughes concept 6 x640 1959   Lunar Robot Mobot (Concept)   Hughes Aircraft (American)

Another Hughes Mobot concept showing similar arm configuration.


See other early Teleoperators here.

See other early Lunar Robots here.


1960 – “Homobile” Lunar Rover – Hugo Gernsback (American)

 1960   Homobile Lunar Rover   Hugo Gernsback (American)

In 1960, the indefatigable Gernsback came out with another lunar rover design. He called it the "Homobile." It had a pressurized cabin mounted on tracks and powered by electricity from fuel cells, with a leg-powered generator as an alternate source of energy. The cabin also had a pair of manipulator arms.

Source:Originally from "1961 Forecast", 1960 pp8-11 by Hugo Gernsback.


See other early Teleoperators here.

See other early Lunar Robots here.


1982-4 – MAR-1 Agricultural Robot – Moscow Institute of Agricultural Engineers (Soviet)

Autonomous Mobile Robot (MAR-1) [Мобильный автономный робот (МАР-1)] was created by the Division of agricultural robotics at the Moscow Institute of Agricultural Engineers in the early 1980s in the Soviet Union.

English text and some images sourced from Vadym Shvachko's Robotic blog here.

Agricultural robot MAR 1 Goryachkina 80s x640 1982 4   MAR 1 Agricultural Robot   Moscow Institute of Agricultural Engineers (Soviet)

The first model of MAR-1.

Image source - Юный техник 1982-11, страница 16

The first model of MAP-1 was designed to serve the livestock complex. The robot was made so that it can use existing walkways on farms (calculated per person), modern equipment and tools.

Agricultural robot MAR 1 view x640 1982 4   MAR 1 Agricultural Robot   Moscow Institute of Agricultural Engineers (Soviet)

Wheeled and tracked models MAR-1.
MAP 1 agric robot x640 1982 4   MAR 1 Agricultural Robot   Moscow Institute of Agricultural Engineers (Soviet)
The height of the robot – 1850 millimeters, the area of ​​the base – a third of a square meter. He has a pair of hands that have eight degrees of freedom. Machine body rotates in either direction around a vertical axis. This further increases the possibility of "hands." Hydraulic "muscles" of each hand, lift up to 75 pounds of cargo. Tactile transducers allow fingers to register or impact compression force in the range of 0.0294 g to 112.7 kg, the temperature is from 0.4 to 180 º C and humidity of 3 to 99 percent. MAR-1 is made prefabricated (detachable hand, aggregated oil-hydraulic, power, navigation and locating subsystem).

C0156199 Model of proposed agricultural robot SPL x640 1982 4   MAR 1 Agricultural Robot   Moscow Institute of Agricultural Engineers (Soviet)

MAR 1 p34b x640 1982 4   MAR 1 Agricultural Robot   Moscow Institute of Agricultural Engineers (Soviet)

map 1 sketch x640 1982 4   MAR 1 Agricultural Robot   Moscow Institute of Agricultural Engineers (Soviet)

Agricultural robot MAR 1  scheme x640 1982 4   MAR 1 Agricultural Robot   Moscow Institute of Agricultural Engineers (Soviet)

The scheme MAR-1

1 – Power Touch sensitization, 2 – Block hand-grips;
3 – Automatic control unit and communication, 4 – hydraulic power unit;
5 – The navigation block, 6 – Power supply unit.

The internal clock is fed MAR-1 team to start work. In memory of automatic operator contain information about the livestock complex technological environment, all of the aisles, entrances and exits, production sites. There is also a sub-system, which will not allow the robot to stay on track. Arriving at the workplace, MAP-1 itself is connected to the power supply, communication lines, control panel or computer. During operation, the device automatically controls the state of the environment (humidity, fumes) and animals (temperature, thickness of subcutaneous fat).
MAR 1 p34a x640 1982 4   MAR 1 Agricultural Robot   Moscow Institute of Agricultural Engineers (Soviet)

p0035   Copy   Copy x640 1982 4   MAR 1 Agricultural Robot   Moscow Institute of Agricultural Engineers (Soviet)

MAR 1 p34 x640 1982 4   MAR 1 Agricultural Robot   Moscow Institute of Agricultural Engineers (Soviet)

TM8407O1 MAR 1 x640 1982 4   MAR 1 Agricultural Robot   Moscow Institute of Agricultural Engineers (Soviet)

see pdf hereTM8407O1 x150 1982 4   MAR 1 Agricultural Robot   Moscow Institute of Agricultural Engineers (Soviet)


 

1950 – Elliptical Walking Wheels – John Kopczynski (American)

Walking wheels MIaug49 3 x640 1950   Elliptical Walking Wheels   John Kopczynski (American)

Walking wheels MIaug49 1 x640 1950   Elliptical Walking Wheels   John Kopczynski (American)

Source: MECHANIX ILLUSTRATED August, 1949

Truck Walks on Wheels
ADMIRAL Richard E. Byrd's transport troubles in the Antarctic ten years ago started John F. Kopczynski, a student engineer, thinking: "Why can't wheels walk?"
Conventional wheels merely spun and bogged down helplessly in the deep snow. Walking wheels could pull like the tracks on a tractor without the great weight, awkwardness or slowness of such gear. The fact that nobody had ever come up with a basic improvement on the wheel since the invention first rolled out of the Stone Age, did not keep young Kopczynski from plugging away at his idea for a walking wheel.

After ten years of experiments, Kopczynski now bead of the Pivot Punch and Die Corporation at North Tonawanda. N. Y., this spring rigged up a working model and finally showed that wheels can walk.

MI's artist Frank Tinsley has carried Kopczynski's walking [Continued on page 143]

[Continued from page 57]
idea a step farther by picturing on page 57 a design for a truck that walks on wheels.
That ambulating vehicle is the answer to the Antarctic problem that stalled Admiral Byrd in the cold. Note how easily the truck mushes along through the deepest snow—no clogging tracks, no frantic spinning.
Smooth riding on those big, egg-shaped rear wheels looks as tough as roller-skating on a railroad bed. The egg wheels on each side of the track, though, are mounted on the ends of a rocker arm and chain-geared together so that when one wheel flips up on its pointed  end, the other flops flat on its side. The pair of wheels on the opposite rocker arm are set up in reverse on a standard truck axle that served as the pivot for both rockers.
As the wheels flip-flop up and down, the rocker arms seesaw sharply but the trucks supporting axle moves forward on an even keel. Actually this truck rides twice as moothly as a round-wheeled vehicle. For when a walking wheel steps up on a foot-high bump, the axle rises only six inches, since its halfway between the ends of each rocker.
Unlike round wheels, the egg-shaped rollers don't spin themselves into a rut. The pointed ends dig into soft terrain and help provide double the pulling power of conventional wheels. In a recent test, Kopczynski buried his "walk wheels" out of sight in a pile of dirt When he switched on the power for the model's electric motor, the wheels started "walking" and quickly pulled away into the open.
The new wheels equal the track-laying gear-of tanks and tractors in pulling and supporting heavy weight on soft surfaces. However, they are much lighter, faster, easier to handle and cheaper to manufacture and service that the crawlers. Then, too, a track layer rips up good roads with its cleats as it plods awkwardly over the hard pavement. When Kopczynski tried out his one-fourth-scale model in a small vehicle with round front wheel the soft-tired walker ran as smoothly at 2 mph as a new Rolls-Royce.
Kopczynski's odd wheel is a natural for tractors, farm and road equipment, and heavy duty trucks that must leave the paved road With walk wheels, combat cars, gun carrier and other military vehicles can speed swiftly over open roads, then march across country through mud, snow or rough terrain with no worries about getting stuck in No Man's Land For thousands of years we've been rolling along on the same old round wheel. Young John Kopczynski, though, finally made that wheel take a walk—and proved he was just the man to put the old rounder in better shape.


square wheel 2 x640 1950   Elliptical Walking Wheels   John Kopczynski (American)

Source: Unusual Locomotives.

31   M7 Allis Chalmers Tractor with elliptica 1950   Elliptical Walking Wheels   John Kopczynski (American)

M7-Alice-Chalmers with Elliptical Wheels. Source: See here.

Fred W. Crismon’s “U.S. Military Wheeled Vehicles,” as I have so many times before, and Crismon came through again:

ellipticalwheeljeep 02 resized 1950   Elliptical Walking Wheels   John Kopczynski (American)

This peculiar machine, seen here from the right rear, incorporated one of the strangest concepts ever tried on a wheeled vehicle. The idea was that if the ground pressure could be changed regularly as the wheel turns, and would do so in relation to the other wheels on the same and opposite side, increased traction would result. Four tires and wheels were specially built which were ellipsoidal in circumference, and they were mounted offset at 90 degrees on each side, as well as being offset right side to left side. A front axle with normal tires was used for steering.

ellipticalwheeljeep 01 resized 1950   Elliptical Walking Wheels   John Kopczynski (American)
This top view of the ellipsoidal-wheeled experimental vehicle shows the unusual configuration. Suspension was of a fabricated walking beam type, and chains drove the four rear wheels. The outer diameter of the inflated tire was approximately three inches greater across the widest section than across the narrowest. A T26E4 tracked snow tractor (Allis-Chalmer) was modified in 1946 to test the concept. It was a dismal failure in that it not only failed to provide better mobility, but operation over any but the softest soils pitched the operator around unmercifully. But the Army will try anything once.


Kopczynski walking wheels x640 1950   Elliptical Walking Wheels   John Kopczynski (American)

Patent number: 2711221
Filing date: Jul 5, 1950
Issue date: Jun 21, 1955
See full patent details here.


See all Walking Wheels and Walking Machines listed here.


1967 – RIVET (Remote Inspection VEhicle Telechiric) – Hugh A. Ballinger (British)

rivet robot 0003 x640 1967   RIVET (Remote Inspection VEhicle Telechiric)   Hugh A. Ballinger (British)

Text: Science Journal, October 1968 Special Issue: Machines Like Men

Machines with arms  p59
H. A. Ballinger

Representing a further class of machines for the radioactive environment is the result of my [Ballinger] own work at Harwell. Some four years ago a study of reports on' criticality' incidents in the United States highlighted the advantages of a machine with arms for reactor damage control duties. A survey of existing designs showed, however, that none had the obstacle surmounting ability needed to reach an accident point within a building. A vehicle study was therefore made which resulted in the design of the RIVET (Remote Inspection Vehicle, 'Telechiric'). The dimensions of this device are such that it has, when in transit, the profile of a crawling man — yet at the scene of an accident it can erect its TV eyes and operating arm to the height of a standing man. In this position it can outreach a human by manipulating loads of up to 35kg at a 1.4 m radius. A novel track design enables it to surmount those obstacles where any single step is as high as 50 per cent of its track length—the limit of a modern tank is 12.5 per cent. It can mount stairs of 45o angle, turn in a 1.2 m corridor, or enter an office, pass through the knee hole of a desk and then climb onto the desk top.

Hugh A. Ballinger is an assistant chief engineer at the Harwell Atomic Energy Research Establishment. His department develops the technology of remote and active handling for the Authority. It also provides the general scientific equipment and services for research into materials science. Previously has led groups developing nuclear fusion and fission plant; he helped to build and operate the first experimental reactor at Harwell.

RIVET PSoct70 1 x640 1967   RIVET (Remote Inspection VEhicle Telechiric)   Hugh A. Ballinger (British)

rivet man modified x640 1967   RIVET (Remote Inspection VEhicle Telechiric)   Hugh A. Ballinger (British)

rivet french book x640 1967   RIVET (Remote Inspection VEhicle Telechiric)   Hugh A. Ballinger (British)


I was recently researching the robots used in the 1979 movie "Saturn 3". One of the minor robots is referred to and is said to be a RIVET made by Harwell Laboratories (UK Atomic Energy Authority).

 1967   RIVET (Remote Inspection VEhicle Telechiric)   Hugh A. Ballinger (British)

 1967   RIVET (Remote Inspection VEhicle Telechiric)   Hugh A. Ballinger (British)

saturn3 rivet 1 x640 1967   RIVET (Remote Inspection VEhicle Telechiric)   Hugh A. Ballinger (British)


The original patent was filed in Great Britain in 1967.

Here are the details on the US patent of RIVET. See here.

Patent number: 3533483
Filing date: Feb 8, 1968
Issue date: Oct 13, 1970


spider manipulator harwell x640 1967   RIVET (Remote Inspection VEhicle Telechiric)   Hugh A. Ballinger (British)

A later version [but pre-1986] from UK Atomic Energy Authority (UKAEA) called "Spider".

roman manipulator harwell x640 1967   RIVET (Remote Inspection VEhicle Telechiric)   Hugh A. Ballinger (British)

Another later version called ROMAN.


Origins of Articulated Track

The track design, particularly that of the later model "Spider" above,  is very similar to that of iRobot's Packbot. It's interesting to note that the original track patent for Packbot does not reference the "Spider" vehicle in its prior art. Possibly the "Spider" design is not patented or only patented in the UK.  Other than similar approaches used for wheelchair climbing, the RIVET/SPIDER design is the first I've come across like this.

irobot packbot pat x640 1967   RIVET (Remote Inspection VEhicle Telechiric)   Hugh A. Ballinger (British)

See full iRobot patent here.

Patent number: 6263989
Filing date: Jan 26, 1999
Issue date: Jul 24, 2001

See also later revised patent of same here which does cite Ballinger's RIVET, unlike the earlier patent.

Patent number: 8113304
Filing date: Jun 13, 2008
Issue date: Feb 14, 2012
Application number12/138,737


Challenge: If anyone comes across an earlier implementation of this design, or more information on the UKAEA "Spider" vehicle, let me know. 

It's interesting to note that an ex-employee of iRobot built and sold his own version of Packbot, called Robot FX "Negotiator".  This resulted in a controversy over patent-infringements in 2010.