Posts Tagged ‘Walking Vehicle’

1973 – Wheel Walker – Ralph Mosher (American)

Mosher-GE-CAMS-future-walking-wheels-3-x640

1973 – Wheel Walker – Ralph Mosher

Wheels Used as Legs
It is understood that many ideas have been presented that involve a combination of wheel actions such as rotation and orbiting. The idea shown in Figure 49 is different in that an immobilized wheel experiencing slipping and bulldozing will transfer its action from wheel rotate to straight-line rearward motion. The translation motion is not an orbiting or circular action. This concept is a direct outgrowth of the thinking involved in developing the walking vehicle. Although the stepping device involves wheels, it is truly a stepping device. The translation motion and the stepover motion of the second wheel act as a bipedal motion of one leg stepping over the other. The chassis of the vehicle is promoted forward just as the human body is through the pelvic action. It can be thought of as being similar to pole vaulting, one over the other. The concept does not depend on terrain shear strength in the Lateral direction. All that is required to make this concept work, in terrain properties, is adequate load bearing capacity.

Mosher-GE-CAMS-future-walking-wheels-2-x640
Figure 50 shows a schematic diagram of a linkage concept that could provide this translation and stepping motion for this dual wheel system. In this diagram, a multiplicity of circles represent the proposed action of the two wheels. The first wheel is shown in the forward position. It is proposed that encountered frontal resistance or wheel slippage will cause the wheel to travel rearward and slightly down. At the same time, the stepping action occurs with the second wheel. The relative positions of the two wheels are indicated by single and double numerical connotations. As an example, position 7 of the first wheel corresponds to position 77 of the second wheel. This diagram indicates start of motion with the highest digit first, so that motion of the first wheel is shown to start at position 7 and the motion of the second wheel starts from position 77 (and at the same time as the first wheel starts). Home positions are shown as number 1 and 11. Of course, this two wheel system would require two sets of the four-bar linkage system shown. The two pair of four-bar linkages would be interconnected to operate as complementary pairs with the motion of one four bar linkage depending on the other. A differential transmission would provide transition from wheel rotary motion to stepping action. The idea of the slight slope of the straight line motion is to provide automatic preference of wheel rotary action  compared to the stepping motion.
There are two key principles involved. One is the principle of stepping action and the second is the use of force reaction on the wheel to provide selectivity of the wheel rotary motion for the translate and step motion. It is beyond the scope of this report to analyze and design the complete system such as suggested by this concept. However the concept is outlined and it is suggested that at least some more thought be given to this idea to determine feasibility and practicability.

From Technical Report 11768 Applying Force Feedback Servomechanism Technology To Mobility Problems, US Army Tank-Automotive Command, 1973, by Ralph S. Mosher, Robotics Inc.


See other early Walking Wheels and Walking Machines here.

See other GE CAMS here:

1956- GE Yes Man
1958-9- GE Handyman – Ralph Mosher
1962 – GE Pedipulator – Ralph Mosher
1969 – GE Walking Truck – Ralph Mosher
1965-71- GE Hardiman I
1969- GE Man-Mate Industrial manipulator

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1913 – Giant Mechanical Mosquito – Dr. Gustav Luchy (Swiss)

During some earlier research on Walking Machines, discovered an article in The Salt Lake Tribune. (Salt Lake City, Utah), March 09, 1913 headlined "The Giant Mechanical Mosquitoes Of Dr. Gustav Luchy." Now that it's come time to write it up, I see that Lyle Zapato's in his blog ZPi has already done a fine job in researching the material. So I will just add the picture and text transcribed here. 

 

Picture Diagram Illustrating the Inventor's Idea of the Development of the Luchy Machine, Drawn from Sketches of the Small Working Model. The Essential Points of the Invention Can Be Grasped Easily by Study of the Carefully Worked Out Illustration. The Artist Has Shown the Machine at Work in the Antarctic, Boring Through the Ice Cap Down into the Internal Fires of the Earth. While the Inventor Has Suggested the Possibility of Tapping Earth's Heat in This Way, Other Scientists Believe Such a Development Highly Improbable. Not Only Would the Tools Have to Be of Impossible Length and Size, but It Would Not Be Possible to Generate Enough Power to Run Them. Besides, the Internal Fires, When Struck, Would Destroy the Tools Instantly. The Future of the Invention Lies, It Is Believed, in Smaller Machines Which Are Able to Carry Men into Places Inaccessible to Other Means of Conveyance and at the Same Time to Provide Shelter.

Giant Mechanical Mosquitoes to Conquer Nature!

Astonishing Machines Suggested by a Swiss Scientist to Open Up Earth's Remotest Places, and to Make Impossible a Repetition of the Captain Scott Tragedy

Milan, Feb. 20.[1913]

SELF-MOVING mechanisms modelled on the lines of gigantic mosquitoes and designed to enable man to conquer Nature in those places where the climate or the formation of the country make it impossible for him to enter or to remain for any length of time have been invented by Dr. Gustav Luchy, a Swiss scientist. Dr. Luchy, who has been collaborator with the Chevalier Pini, [actually Ing. Guiseppe Pino] the inventor of astonishing machines for exploring the sea bottoms, asserts that if Captain Scott had been equipped with one of his mechanical mosquitoes he could have made his way to the South Pole within a few hours after leaving his base. He also claims that the machines will make impossible any repetition of the Scott tragedy [from 1912], and will enable man to wrest from the Antarctic continent its mineral treasures without exposing their operators to the slightest danger.

Despite man's boasted mechanical progress, his engines of locomotion are singularly limited. The locomotive is dependent upon rails; the automobile demands at least a fairly smooth surface on which to run, and the flying machine as yet lacks efficient carrying power. None of the three is equipped to provide adequate shelter for any length of time in parts of the earth's surface where without shelter man cannot exist. Dr. Luchy's problem was to find a mechanism which could be independent of rails, would not be deterred by obstacles impassable to the automobile, would have practicable carrying power, and would provide shelter to a sufficient number of men for a sufficient length of time to enable them to do whatever they had set out to do.

In the formation of the mosquito he claims he found the combination of leg height with carrying power that he desired. The appearance of the machines in action would recall vividly the appearance of the Fighting Machines of the Martians in H. G. Wells's "War of the World's," a description of which is reprinted on this page. [See original for excerpt under the title "The Weird, 'Living' Machines of the Octopus-Like Martians".]

Only small working models of the mechanical mosquitoes have as yet been made by the inventor, but these seem to be as practicable as the paper plans promised. A large working model forty feet high when the long, articulated legs are fully expended, is now in course of construction. In the body are the engines which, provide its motive power and the quarters for a crew of ten men. The head is nothing more than a huge engine, from which are operated the drills, cutting tools, lifting cranes or whatever it is that is necessary for the work at hand. The inventor has in mind still larger machines built on exactly the same lines. He believes that there is no limit to the size of his mechanisms, and that it will be possible to build a mechanical mosquito big enough to walk through the shallower depths of the ocean, and to be powerful enough to cut through earth's crust to the internal fires—the same plan that has been suggested by the famous astronomer, Camille Flammarion, as a solution of the problem of our future source of energy when our coal beds give out.

The Luchy machines, besides being foreshadowed in Wells's fanciful story, have actual predecessors in travelling stages in use at Whitby, England, for marine work. These machines, the invention of Messrs. W. Hill & Co., are now being used for the construction of concrete breakwaters and similar operations. A description of their simpler mechanism will serve to make a trifle clearer the mode of locomotion of the Luchy machines. The Hill stages have eight legs and feet, four of which are used at a time when in motion. There are two massive steel framework structures, one inside the other, the outer being square, and the inner rectangular, the latter being somewhat smaller than the other. The legs, comprising stout members, which can be moved up and down vertically for a considerable distance, are fitted at the corners of each stage, and are pointed at the lower end to secure a firm grip upon the rocky seabed.

The walking action is secured as follows: The outer frame has its front legs lowered until the spuds (or feet) secure a grip upon the seabed. The legs of the inner stage are then raised to clear all obstructions when the stage is moved for ward the full extent of its travel, which brings it against the forward end of the outer stage, when its legs are lowered to the ground. The legs of the outer stage are now elevated vertically, so that the latter rests upon the former.

The outer stage is now moved forward until the inner stage is brought into contact with the rear end of the outer stage. The legs of the last named are then lowered, those of the inner stage raised, and the same cycle of operation is repeated.

The "walking man" is quite a massive affair. The outer frame is 48½ feet square, and it stands 33 feet high from the bottom of the spuds to the working deck level. The inner stage is 29½ feet by 40¼ feet. The result is that the machine can make a forward stride of about ten feet, while the inner stage can move sideways for about three feet. The feet are raised and lowered by screw gearing driven by electric motors. A complete movement can be effected in fifteen minutes.

It has been found that, with this travelling stage, work can be continued in the roughest weather. Indeed, it was the heavy seas experienced at Peterhead that led to its invention.

The Luchy machines have six articulated legs, three on each side of the body. Each leg ends in a deeply ridged foot, designed to give gripping power and to insure stability. The parts where the legs come from the mechanical body move on ball joints, thus giving free movement in all directions.

A study of the diagram on this page gives more clearly than any written description could, the essential principles of the Luchy invention.

In the Antarctic are enormous fields of mineral wealth. Captain Scott reported great coal beds and evidences of platinum, gold, iron and other useful minerals have been reported by other explorers. The great question has been how to get this mineral wealth away from such a place. The land is frozen and for a great part of the year is swept by terrific blizzards, in which man can hardly live, much less work. But it is claimed for the Luchy invention that several machines, each capable of holding crews of forty or fifty men, could be taken down to the Antarctic land mass. There they could be adjusted and could be effectively worked for the greater part of the year at least.

The boring tools in the head of the mosquitoes can be manipulated entirely from the inside of the machine itself and the body of the mechanism provides perfect shelter against the worst climatic conditions that could be encountered.

The machines will be made of steel and aluminum, and are not inordinately heavy. They are run by the Diesel oil machines, and the problem of fuel is the difficult one. It would be with coal. It will even be possible to use one machine as an operating mechanism and to use several others as carriers for whatever ores or other earth's treasures their crews are after.

For work in deserts, where the only means of access is by caravan, it is thought that the Luchy machines will be extremely useful. They do away with the necessity of erecting elaborate buildings or elaborate fortifications against hostile tribes, and can move easily and swiftly from place to place. They carry their own supplies and their own means of movement, and so are not dependent upon their surroundings.

In tropical countries, where locomotive travel is impeded by the vegetable growth, the machines can be equipped with cutting tools, and could clear a path to whatever point aimed at in a fraction of the time compared to the slow methods now in use.

Finally their use as war engines, as terrible as the fanciful "walking tripods" of Mr. Wells's Martians, is being brought to the attention of the Italian Government.

It is only fair to say that many scientists are skeptical as to the practicability of the machines. They grant that they will have limited use, but doubt if they can be extended to the deep sea wading size predicted by Dr. Luchy. Complexity of parts, weight and the enormous energy needed to run them on a large scale are put forth as arguments against their unlimited use.


Like Zapato, I also cannot find another mention of Dr. Gustav Luchy. Zapato makes a comment assuming Luchy is Italian, be he is Swiss and collaborated with Guiseppe Pino who is an Italian. I've tried searching on variants of Luchy's name, but currently without success.


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1957 – Walking Pram – (Swedish)

Metal feet on Swedish carriage enables it to "walk" up or down stairs. The rocking rhythm on flat surface puts baby to sleep.

Source: Mechanics Illustrated May 1957.


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1982c – Powered Walking Wheel Vehicle – Japanese

A motorized Shoe-wheeled Vehicle most likely from the Honda Idea Contest or Toyota's Idea Olympics (Expo) which showcased ideas from their employees.


See other Walking Wheels at the bottom of the Walking Machines page.


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1967 – Centipede Walking Machine – Meredith Thring (Australian-English)

USEFUL ROBOTS

US Patent number: 3522859 – see here for full patent details.
Filing date: Jan 22, 1968
Issue date: Aug 4, 1970
First filed in Great Britain 26 Jan 1967

Model of Centipede.

The 'centipede'
In the first model (Fig. 6.15(a) above) of the centipede the sprung legs were operated with two chains, one arranged half-way up the legs and one attached to the top of the legs, so arranged that the legs were always held vertically. Each leg is separately sprung and can have various types of feet on it (Fig. 6.16-not shown). However, a fundamental advantage of separate legs is that if one has a solid rubber pad for each foot, with no track on it at all, it still gives a good grip on soft ground because the front and rear edges of the foot act as the track. The actual weight is taken on a rail with a roller feed to the leg running on it. 


Mechanical Elephant

Above: Small-scale working model of mechanical elephant designed for rough- country load-carrying and a wide range of jobs required in developing virgin land for agricultural purposes. The legs of the 'centipede' track are individually sprung, giving the machine a capability of climbing vertical objects up to one-and-a-half metres high in the proposed full-sized version. The machine could also cross rivers and lakes.

A study of this machine showed that it is not essential to have the legs moving vertically when they come down to the ground and they can come round a circle at the front and still give the same ability to climb stairs. The next version shown in Fig. 6.17 above can be described as a caterpillar track with legs. Each element of the caterpillar chain consists of T-shaped piece, joined to the next element by rollers at the corners of the crossbar of the T with the stem of the T forming the sprung leg. The two rollers run on rails which are concave upwards so that slightly more weight is taken on the middle feet than on the end ones, to make turning easier. The chains are driven by a hexagonal wheel at each end, with grooves in them that mesh with the rollers. If one has too few corners on these wheels there is too much variation in the speed of the track as the wheel rotates because of the difference in the radii of the circumscribing and inscribing circles of the polygons hence the wheels should be at least hexagons. The rail has to be located with its end at the radius of the circle traversed by the insides of the rollers.
The other proposal (Fig. 6.18 below) has been specifically put forward for the problems of carrying tree trunks over areas where tree stumps are frequent, and for operating sugar beet or potato-extracting machines in a very wet season.
This has a single rubber track supporting low-pressure pneumatic rubber legs, which are preferably elliptical in cross-section, with the long axis in the forward direction, so that they can bend more easily sideways than backwards under load. The belt is driven by a toothed drum on each end, with the teeth meshing with grooves on the inside of the belt. The flat raised part of the teeth on the belt is coated with a low friction plastic and runs between the two drums on a convex-downward smooth steel rail, in the form of a wide plate, which takes the load.

 Source: Robots and Telechirs, M. W. Thring, 1983.


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