During 1933, engineer's were determining how the Golden Gate Bridge was to be built.
Source: Modern Mechanix and Inventions, Dec 1933.
One engineer's suggestion for the solution of the problem of sinking caissons is depicted here in this picture of a "walking bridge." Definite placement of caissons has always been an engineering bugaboo when they are floated over a spot and sunk. Especially is this true in harbors where there are side rips, or in rivers where strong currents are found. While the walking version may be impracticable, a caterpillar footed bridge is certainly plausible and has many merrits from a constructional standpoint.
The size of the caissons which must be built and sunk to enable piers to be built has called forth one of the most novel engineering proposals of recent years – still another bridge, a “Walking Bridge” if you please – which will walk to the location with the caisson and there accurately sink it upon the exact spot required.
Caissons are an essential impedimenta to bridge building of this type, and they are hard to handle in tide rips or rivers which have currents. M. Clemients, French engineer of Paris, has proposed a mobile structure which could pick up the caisson and either by walking with it, or on caterpillar treads, move to the spot desired to muck the caisson in.
 The Golden Gate Bridge is a suspension bridge spanning the Golden Gate strait, the mile-wide, three-mile-long channel between San Francisco Bay and the Pacific Ocean.
caisson from wiki http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Caisson_(engineering). In geotechnical engineering, a caisson (/ˈkeɪsən/ or /ˈkeɪsɒn/) is a watertight retaining structure used, for example, to work on the foundations of a bridge pier, for the construction of a concrete dam, or for the repair of ships. These are constructed such that the water can be pumped out, keeping the working environment dry. When piers are to be built using an open caisson and it is not practical to reach suitable soil, friction pilings may be driven to form a suitable sub-foundation. These piles are connected by a foundation pad upon which the column pier is erected.
These Giant Claws Pluck Oil Rigs From The Briny Deep
Andrew Tarantola 31 May 2012 11:30 AM
Though they weigh as much as 55,000 tonnes, the massive semi-submersible oil rigs dotting the Gulf of Mexico can still sink when faced with a hurricane’s onslaught. And there’s only one way to pull the rigs’ 6800-tonne decks off the seafloor after such a catastrophe — with America’s heaviest-lifting ship, the VB 10,000.
Designed by the Versabar corporation (based off the company’s previous heavy lifter, the Bottom Feeder) and constructed by Gulf Marine Fabricators in Ingleside, Texas, the $US100 million VB 10,000 is a heavy-lift catamaran that mounts a pair of massive lift gantries atop a pair of barges. Perhaps massive is a bit of an understatement.
Each gantry measures 73 metres tall and weighs over 3000 tonnes — or about as much as the Ben Franklin Bridge in Delaware. The barges both measure 90m by 22m, and each is powered by a quartet of 1000hp thrusters that also allow it to remain stationary over the job site. To prevent the motion of the ocean from affecting the the lift, the VB 10,000 utilises a set of articulated pins to connect the gantries to the barges. To perform the actual lift, four 1800-tonne lifting blocks are attached to the oil rig deck by divers, who also cut off the rig’s legs, and are then pulled to the surface by the vessel’s quad 360-tonne winches and deposited on the back of a waiting barge for transport back to port.
Launched in October 2010, the VB 10,000 has already logged over 40 lifts — everything from underwater debris retrieval, to topside decommissioning, to jacket removal and reefing. And with the vessel’s new grasping devices, the VB 10,000 will be able to pick up the some 1800 rigs US regulators have deemed necessary for removal in the next decade.
Aptly named “The Claws”, these underwater lift devices are exactly what they sound like, gigantic pincers not unlike ones you’d find in a carnival game. Each independently operated claw measures 37m tall, 34m wide, and weighs 900 tonnes. They can also be used in conjunction with a set of cradles that are sunk to the seafloor ahead of a claw lift. The debris is first loaded into the cradle, then the the cradle itself is raised. This prevents the claws accidentally crimping a a multimillion dollar rig deck as it’s recovered.
Cyclic Action Bipedal Electric Railway by W. P. Holland
Model Maker January 1956
The problem in view this month is that of penetrating dense scrub country – solved by taking big steps: indeed, when this machine throws its track nonchalantly over its left shoulder it fairly stamps its way through the offending greenery. You will see from the cycle of operation the general principle; the car runs the length of the rail, and, running past the front pylon, upsets the balance of the track unit, causing it to swing up and over, the rear end now becoming the front: and landing on the pylon again ready for the car to proceed once more.
If you want to emulate the Scots and try tossing the "Caber".
Click on these images below for a high-res version of the complete article:
Thanks to David Buckley in providing the material and idea for this post.
For other Walking models by W. Peter Holland, see my other posts here.
Japanese Automotive Technology is procreation "biological robot" machine
Has developed a bio-mechanical robot became the prototype of the "Mekamo" ["Mechamo"] series of Gakken, the late Mr. Ryuichi Tomiya. In person is said to be the pioneer of automotive engineering in Japan, after graduating from the Faculty of Engineering, Chiba University, joined the Corporation automobile manufacturing (Nissan rear) in 1934, he has been involved, such as the Datsun, the design of the finest cars of many underneath. Toyota also served as technical advisor after, it was someone like the history of Japanese Automotive Technology itself exactly.
At one point, based on the idea that pops into the midst of a study of the suspension system of the car, the Tokyo Institute of Technology professor Masahiro Mori is a Japanese robotics guru Mr. Tomiya this, and (at the time, now professor emeritus) robot is a prototype of Mekamo jointly build. This was a robot made of aluminum, similar to natural organisms. It is the whole thing to work to convert complex movements using the crank gear and the rotary motion of the motor of any one. Was what I was born to be a result of the pursuit from the point of view of mechanical engineering, "at how little energy, yet simple structure, or forced to move in a way that makes sense" of them. According to Mr. Tomiya, "the pursuit of these results, it has become something like the movement of the animal happened to" It seems to be that. Initially, these robots, named "Mekanimaru" ["Mechanimals"] was coined in the mechanical + animals. It is of about 1968 (1968). Since is 1972 (1972), was to be released in the name of this is called "Mekamo" ["Mechamo"] been brought to Gakken later is was was needed four years still about to commercialize it.
Products to be "material" instead of "toy"
When you then, Mr. Mori and Mr. Tomiya has been appeared on educational television NHK, I introduced this Mekanimaru. Then, immediately after the broadcast query, from toy manufacturers such as "I want to commercialization," seems to have to rush. Two of the developers had developed without thought of the initial commercialization. However, we were inundated with queries that is so strong it was the meaning that "these things are established it as a commodity" called. However, as a developer feeling "being sold as just a toy can not be convinced" that was strong. Are those who were born from the study of (suspension) suspension device of the car, Mekanimaru, as the mechanism is exactly the materials of "linkage" exactly. If you sell anyway, there was a desire to sell to them as "material" and not a toy. Mr. Mori is now that there is also the author of "The Science of years ○" of Gakken at the time, is demonstrated in front of the president of Gakken of the time there is also such edge. So, the electronic block Gakken know, department toy of Gakken at the time (we have become a separate company now) because it was dealing with a toy and educational to say the toy, I meet even glasses your teacher forest I think he was. President who is also the founder of Gakken is seems to have decided that "instantly from trying to commercialize this interesting" to see the movement of the Mekanimaru. However, since it was hard. In order to mass-produced products is essential. How do I mass production of metal robots have never seen. Has singled out was standing here, was Mr Ishiyama Gakken employees yuan. After studying mechanical engineering at the University, through the company or toy manufacturer of mechanical design, Mr. Ishiyama, he had just joined the Gakken time. Ishiyama said, "because I was doing the mechanical engineering," I It is said that "we have to work in raining suddenly feeling that" you do. Experience in mechanical design and toy design was Mr. Ishiyama rich already, when I started to see the metal handmade robot I heard that Mr. Tomiya Menkura~tsu. Things you've never seen exactly, where no idea Do I need to design how … and a disciple as a research student in the laboratory of Dr. Tomiya Sagamihara time by Shamei, Mr. Ishiyama, the design of the robot I was supposed to learn from scratch.
The birth of "Mekamo" Gakken
Mr. Ishiyama who was ordered to developers of Mekamo suddenly. Admitted to his laboratory in Sagamihara Tomiya, through the Institute daily rent an apartment close to the Institute, he was devoted to the development is likely from morning till night. This apartment Gakken generation was borne, because it is no convenience store era, yet everyday life is so was pretty lame. We should not be developed as work since we will ask them to rent apartment in company money, what is not to commercialize anything. That pressure seems to have been considerable. I have heard about once boss of Gakken come to check the progress of a week, especially, was a most melancholy. While the first study of the link mechanism, in Tomiya Institute, he began writing a drawing toward commercialization in reference to Mr. Tomiya Mekanimaru made by hand. Under the guidance of Mr. Tomiya, write a rewrite drawings. I continued for about two years seems to have a repeat of this intently. Even though the cause drawing, I do not wake up in the drawing exactly what Mr. Tomiya made. Since we launched as a product to mass production, mass production in mind, which can not be part of the assembly will change the structure. The original Mekanimaru was handmade by Mr. Tomiya, became the birth of "Mekamo of Gakken", at the stage of Mr. Ishiyama was designed for mass production in mind. Mekamo was originally developed as a product for the elementary school. However, when we launched, a user could center around high school students from a junior high school student. Assembly and for the split was difficult, as many cases, query for children that can not be assembled well in elementary school, that "does not work" has been justified I was in a lot of company. In addition, many cases that are being brought in for repair shop model of the town, I heard that in the model shop Irassha~tsu also was familiar with the repair of Mekamo. Therefore, series that was easy to assemble Minimekamo little was planned. I did things in this series, the drawing was made in 1973 by the cheaper prices significantly reduce the number of parts. In this way, a big hit that first shot Mekamo series was released in 1972 (1972) in July, he often had not been shipped three million monthly. However, an unexpected challenge to Mekamo series was good was waiting. It was the oil crisis that hit the whole of Japan.
Trials of the first oil shock
First oil crisis occurred in the fall (1973) 1973. I think many people remember the commotion that toilet paper one day suddenly disappeared from the supermarket. Situation that leads to soaring raw materials, oil shock gave a very serious blow to the Japanese economy as a whole at the time. I was influenced by a very large Mekamo this fact also. I was forced to raise when not endure to soaring raw material by the oil shock, there is Mekamo. Because he was so significant increase Inchiu~amu was ¥ 1800 to ¥ 3500 for example, this is in terms of sales has gone Mekamo sizable impact. On the other hand, Mekamo itself has received high praise from all quarters. Is often used as teaching materials in the Faculty of Engineering of the University, particularly in Waseda University and Tokyo Institute of Technology, Mr. Tomiya had been an instructor lectures, seems to have been done Mr. Ishiyama served as an assistant designer. In addition, in the Okinawa Ocean Expo was held in 1975 (1975), the exhibition was held in the Hall芙蓉Mekamo. Furong Pavilion theme is something called "bionics of the Sea", (which was called by the name Mekanimaru here) was "Aquarium" machine exhibition of its center. In this case, with the theme Mekamo sea creatures were displayed number. This seems to have the activities of Mr. Ishiyama Gakken is also versatile, greater involvement in the exhibition itself.
The late 1970s it became a turning point
It was Mekamo you've evaluated from various quarters, I could not do if we do not fight in the second half of the 1970s, will continue to up the cost of plating by environmental regulations have become stricter gradually, and the high costs further. In addition, it is also likely to have become gradually more query "can not be made well." In fact, on the radio that "years of scientific ○" had been put in the appendix of Gakken, from what type of winding your own coils, have been wrapped in advance, did you change something ready-made, but it was around the end of the 70s just . In the editorial department, I had to him for sending to make those coil wound neatly each time, because there are a lot of complaints similar too, he is now with the appendix is wrapped with a pre-coil forced I was Tsu. As we did become less environment or later, we will move on to another rapidly from "what make with their own hands," interest of the children from this era, just that it can make something to devise their own I think. The second half of the 70s, I think it may have been the era that just hit the tipping point. Mekamo also, it is not possible while being massaged with the times like this, just to continue the production, he was discontinued at the beginning of the 1980s, while the results will be missed.
Over time, that can be reprinted
At the time, Mr. Ishiyama et al, we worked desperately to reduce costs whether somehow unable to continue production. I heard also try to manufacture brought into Hong Kong and China mold, China at the time does not have technology as much as now still, it is seems to have given up because they could not be to the level you want to sell as a commodity.
I think right now, you can re-release Mekamo, and largely due to changing times greater. As a direct factor is that many of the part owing to technological advances may irony China. However, I think that it can also be in the form like that, regardless of the world once again today, products that disappear into the waves of the times while being spared the past, whether it is not of such significance that there. So we also think Mekamo this series, and I want to sell for a long time as a member of the "adult science" From now on, I hope you'll watch warmly.
Similar aquatic models from 1978
The Department of Mechanical Aquarium "Marine Science Museum" is located in the second floor of the museum, and the machine is called Aquarium (Mekanimaru). Born in 1978 as the theme "Learning from sea creatures, think about the future of ocean development," and mechanical aquarium was reopened in Exhibits aware coexistence with stronger creatures in 1995. Here, (Mekanimaru) animals are exhibited machine to analyze the behavior and function of sea creatures, was created based on that data. Because they adapted to the environment in which to live, that reproduce by machine to analyze the function and these actions, behavior of marine animals, the hint of making marine robot needed to develop ocean way is not obtained from the idea, or was born Mekanimaru.
Click on the above to be taken to a video clip of these.
EDUCATIONAL BAIT CATCHES STUDENT'S INTEREST
Japan Natsot/Engcomm Duration: 2.50"
At a marine Science Museum southwest of Tokyo, everything is not as it seems. Tanks contain rare examples of sea-life, as well as the unexpected. In what's become known as the "mecquarium," mechanical fish dart through the weed. Their purpose is to teach children how robots move and encourage their interest in science, at the same time. Children can manipulate the controls of the 150 mechanical fish, all hand-made by museum staff. Curator Tadanobu Ishibashi has crafted the museum's latest exhibit, a mechanical lobster. Its sensors enable it to detect food from the seabed floor. It can also spot enemies, like the blue ringed octopus.
Meet Scott, a commercial welder who by day runs his own sheet metal fabricating business in Sacramento with 3 other colleagues, and by night, he constructs metal geodesic dome mutant vehicles and pod cabins.
Inspired by Theo Janssen's StrandBeest, Scott created his own Bucky ball like mutant vehicle for this year's Burning Man event to cruise around the playa at Black Rock City. With initial approval for his design from the Burning Man Department of Mutant Vehicles (DMV), he set out to construct his Walking Pod, a mutated version of the Strandbeest, with a focus on creating a moving platform to cross the hostile terrain while providing a comfortable living space inside.
A ladder to climb into the Pod
With time and money constraints he spent his free weekends and nights searching for surplus materials to construct his geodesic mutant vehicle. Fabricating parts in his workshop using only his welding skills and a CNC plasma table, Scott planned and built the vehicle in 3 months.
Constructed from scrap metal parts, sheet metal, tubing, industrial dishwasher motors, deep cell batteries, speed controllers and polycarbonate scraps the vehicle weighs approximately the same as a VW beetle at 1800 pounds.
A closer look at the Walking Pod's Dishwasher Motor
Requiring only 800 watts of power to run with a top speed 0.2 miles per hour, the mutant vehicle is powered by two 12 volt batteries hooked up to an inverter, two speed controllers and two electric motors. When the batteries charge to 90% the additional solar and wind generator built on top of the vehicle complement the backup generator reducing the time needed to run it during the week.
Unlike the Strandbeest, Scott split the Walking Pod mutant vehicles' legs into sections of three, mainly to fit the size of his pod cabin to enable him to transport it from Sacramento, California.
With the help of Scotts' own cross-like spring mechanism, each leg moves forward and reverses independently, enabling the vehicle to travel in both directions when driving it across the desert. To ensure the legs run smoothly and cope with the abusive playa dust, each pivot point is made from self-lubricating graphite impregnated bushings.
A closer look at the Chain Spring (above) and Legs (below)
Scott hopes in the future it may serve some more practical purposes—perhaps as a way to cross toxic waste sites, snake-infested swamps or hot volcanic fields. For now, it serves as a great spectacle for all those out on the Burning Man playa.
Andrew Baldwin trained as a Master Blacksmith and Welder and worked as such for 28 years. His interest in Victorian engineering, his limitless imagination and his aptitude for working metal are what motivates him to create his outlandish mechanical marvels.
Among his creations is a truly poetic life-size sculpture (click here to see it), which, over and over again, explodes into fragments before slowly reforming into the image of its maker. He has constructed many walking machines and numerous ‘winged’ works (the largest of which spans 40 feet). ‘The Walking Boat’ is his most ambitious to date, and is the first boat he built.
The farrier-turned-artist has created a boat that walks and last Thursday the vessel was intended to be strolling along the shores of the South Bank.
Artist Andrew Baldwin said: "The boat is mechanical but driven by a hydraulic motor. It walks itself, the front wheel steers the legs and the back controls the boat in the water. It is very slow but takes four foot long steps so covers a lot of ground."
The project has been a labour of love for Andrew who trained as a blacksmith after failing to get into art college and ran his own forge until his passion for sculpture took over.
This is not the first time Andrew has given legs to his sculptures. The centre for creative industries located a short walk from East India DLR, is also home to his walking fish as well as a series of other moving metal artwork.