Posts Tagged ‘Ukraine’

1987c – MTC 200 Submersible – (мтк 200 -Soviet)


1987c – MTK 200 Submersible. [мтк  = MTC in English].


MTK-200. Weight-3,5 tons. Meant for works on depth up to 500 metres.
Operates with helping of control panel from carrier-vessel through cable-rope.
Apparatus have autonomous telemetry, lighting technology, track chassis for bottom moving 6 (six) electronic motors for moving in water.
2 (two) manipulators 8 (eight) degrees of freedom, 90 kg of pressing on clamps.
Application: analogous ROV Agent.


Underwater remotely operated vehicle, MTK-200 underwater robot. Seen at Admiral Makarov Ukrainian State Sea Technical University (Nikolaev city).


The MTK-200 system was provided for inspection of underwater objects mainly for Submarine Rescue operations down to 500 metres. Its companion submersible was the Sever-2.



 071211_mtk200-x320 mtc-200-sl-x320

MTC-200 modernized and back in service
By GolDen, Created 11/12/2007

MTC-200 modernized and back in service Nikolaev scientists and engineers of the Institute of Automation and Electrical Engineering Admiral Makarov National University of Shipbuilding completed restoration and modernization of the underwater robot crawler MTC-200, designed for rescue operations on the wreck of up to 500 meters.

MTC-200 – Soviet development, entered service in the Navy 80 years. According to project leader, Doctor of Technical Sciences Vladimir Blintsova during modernization underwater vehicle has been equipped with two manipulators, having seven degrees of freedom for each new power plant and modern management systems.

In addition, the machine can perform a number of tasks: to carry out underwater welding operation, make the hose from the air in the submarine, which lies on the bottom of the sea. This underwater device can operate at a depth of nearly 660 meters. Power supply and control unit is conducted from the ship carrier.

After completion of laboratory testing device MTC-200 sent to Sevastopol Research Center "State Oceanarium".

Uninhabited remotely operated robot marine complex of MTC-200 provides the ability to conduct underwater to a depth of 500 meters and the following tasks:
– Inspection, repair and maintenance of deep-laying cable lines and pipelines.
– Provide flight over the water area lettered flights.
– Providing testing of marine weapons and military equipment.
– Production of underwater engineering and search and rescue operations.
– Assist emergency vessels and ships in distress.
– The intelligence function.
– Mapping of underwater landscapes.
– Research and development.
– Provide deep diving submarine of the Ukrainian Navy.
– Providing ship salvage.
– Provide work with flooded explosive and toxic objects.
– A survey of the underwater part of hulls.
– The repair of the submarine berthing front.

See other early Underwater Robots here.

1964 – Marine Mammals and Ordnance Recovery (American)

1964 onwards – Marine Mammals and Ordnance Recovery


Ahab, a 5,500 pound killer whale, recovers a piece of inert ordnance using an acoustic pinger to guide him during the Deep Ops project. The whale is also equipped with a grabber device and a hydrazine system to allow the object to float easily to the surface. -Photo.

Porpoise / Dolphins:


Source: Extract from Popular Mechanics, July 1967.
"Aside from the porpoises, a number of other marine animals are being considered for underwater work. There's even hope of employing some of the smaller whales for special tasks, such as hauling heavy cargoes along the bottom. Preliminary work with pilot whales at Marineland of the Pacific shows that they echo-locate in the same way as do porpoises, that they are intelligent, and possibly can be trained more rapidly than porpoises because they usually calm down more quickly after capture. Pilot whales (17 feet long, 3000 pounds) have been taught to leap high in the air for food and to perform other stunts. In fact, a big false killer whale at Marineland of the Pacific began doing out-of-water back-flip leaps after watching trainers teach this stunt to a porpoise. It was worked in as part of her regular performance from then on.
Sea lions (the "trained seals" of circuses and zoos) and some other members of the seal family may get regular jobs with the Navy, too. Sea lions have excellent eyesight, as research at Stanford Research Institute has shown, and very good directional hearing, although their sonar ability appears to be rudimentary at best.
All in all, don't be surprised if the Navy starts a brand-new kind of enlistment program in the future, for sea lions, dolphins and whales!  "


Title :   Project Deep Ops: Deep Object Recovery with Pilot and Killer Whales : Report Date : NOV 1972

Descriptive Note : Project summary rept. Aug 1969-Nov 1971

Corporate Author : NAVAL UNDERSEA CENTER SAN DIEGO CA : Personal Author(s) : Bowers, Clark A. ; Henderson, R. S.

Abstract : Two species of whales, killer whales (Orcinus orca) and pilot whales (Globicephala scammoni), were conditioned to locate and mark for recovery pingered cylindrical objects in the open ocean. The animals were conditioned to boat-follow, wear harnesses with radio backpacks, and deploy mouth-carried recovery hardware. An automatic direction-finding radio tracking system, originally developed for studies of wild marine mammals, was adopted and transformed to a system which is practical and reliable for day-to-day use with trained whales in the open ocean. The killer whales dived to maximum depths of 850 feet and 500 feet to deploy practice grabbers. The pilot whale deployed a practice grabber at a depth of 1654 feet and on one occasion apparently made a volunteered dive (without practice grabber) to a depth of 2000 feet. Float-line recovery devices proved ineffectual, leading to the development of a hydrazine lift system, which was fitted to the operational Grabber and is capable of lifting 600 pounds from 1000 feet. The pilot whale aided in the recovery of a dummy Mk 46 torpedo from 500 feet with this device, and during an earlier training session deployed the hydrazine system on the same target at a 1000-foot depth.

On 15 November 1971 Morgan successfully deployed the hydrazine lift system and effected the recovery of a dummy Mk 46 torpedo in 500 feet of water. The recovery site was approximately 5 nautical miles from Sag Harbor. On one other occasion Morgan deployed the hydrazine unit on a 1000-foot-deep target; however, the grabber did not attach properly. Subsequent attempts were frustrated by inclement weather and heavy seas, and the project was officially concluded on 1 December 1971..
Prototype grabber
In February 1970 the design of a prototype grab device was started. The approach used was to adapt a grabber to the practice grabber release mechanism and mouthpiece. With proper placement and actuation, grab arms were to lock around a cylindrical target and separate from the mouthpiece. A float with a retrieval line would then deploy to the surface.
From several primary designs of varying types, a dual-arm device with distending tubular grab arms was chosen. Fabrication of this grabber (model A-1) was completed in May 1970. Preliminary tests with it indicated problems in the extension of the arms from their tubular sockets. Dissatisfaction with this model prompted the design and fabrication of model B-1 .
The model 13-1 grabber (Fig. 26 and 27) was made of 1/4-inch aluminum plate and utilized rotating closure arms rather than distending arms. When pressed against a target and in the proper orientation, the closure arms are forced to rotate and close into circular form and lock into rocking ratchet plates.

Model B-1 CAMLOC.

A practice grabber with a new release mechanism was tested with Ahab in March 1970. On this device a quick-disconnect air line fitting replaced the cam-locks as the connecting link. These new fittings were superior in reliability and durability and were thereafter used on all practice and operational grabbers.


A 1,200 pound pilot whale carrying a recovery device in his mouth makes a preliminary pass over a dummy torpedo. Photo taken Oct. 1972.

It was obvious that a float-line method would not work for a system capable of recoveries at depths greater than 1000 feet. In December 1970 development was begun of a hydrazine monopropellant gas generator lift system for deep recoveries. All the components of this system were to be carried on the grab apparatus. and no lines were to be used.
Don Miller. the Navy's leading expert in hydrazine lift systems. was transferred from China Lake, California. to NUC, Hawaii. to design and supervise fabrication of the self-contained lift system. Development began in mid-February 1971, and by early June 1971 a prototype device was ready for testing.


Press Photograph: In this 1972 Navy photograph, a pilot whale at the Naval Undersea Reseach and Development Center's Hawaii laboratory prepares to fasten a grabber claw to a torpedo. "Morgan" presses a grabber claw against a target. locking the lilt device onto a torpedo on the sea bottom As he pulls away, the mouthpiece separates, activating a system that inflates a balloon and floats the torpedo to the surface. JUNE 11, 1989



Ahab, a 5,500 pound killer whale, accepts a grabber device from his trainer during the Deep Ops project. The device is used for deep ocean ordnance recovery. Photo circa 1985.



Beluga Whales:


Beluga's used in "Cold Ops"

Since the early 1960s the United States had been deploying marine mammals, beginning with dolphins, for tasks including mine detection and recovery of test torpedoes. By the mid-1970s, the locus of the naval cold war had shifted to the Arctic, where the latest Soviet submarines were secreting themselves under the ice cap, an environment off-limits to animals including dolphins and sea lions used in the Navy Marine Mammal Program (NMMP). Experiments commenced on weaponry that could function in such extreme conditions. The Navy needed marine mammals with built-in sonar, capable of locating and retrieving sunken experimental torpedoes in the frigid waters and low visibility of the Arctic.
The new Cold Ops recruits proved not only to be remarkable divers, ultimately reaching preset platforms at depths of over 2,000 feet, but pinpointing retrievers as well. Belugas evolved their precisely honed echolocation powers in order to both navigate the Arctic’s dark waters and to find available pockets of breathing air between the ocean surface and the underside of the ice cap. Pinging on mud-embedded test torpedoes proved, by comparison, an easily dispatched task. They would also learn to wield a mouthpiece with a special “grabber assembly” for retrieval of the torpedoes from the ocean floor.

Beluga whale object recovery system
Publication number    USH1533 H
Publication date    4 Jun 1996
Priority date    19 Aug 1985
Inventors    Clark A. Bowers, Donald Miller
Original Assignee    The United States Of America As Represented By The Secretary Of The Navy
A method of recovering an underwater object wherein a beluga whale wears aackpack harness, beaches into a boat with beaching capabilities and is transported to an area of work. The beluga whale is trained to then follow small boats, carry attachment hardware using a bite plate connected to the hardware, carry tow lines and buoyancy modules from the surface, dive and then locate and deploy the attachment hardware onto the non-pingered target.


There are several ranges in the Pacific and Northwest where torpedoes are fired and recovered routinely. Computerized operations, tracking, and test facilities, control, monitor, and direct range activities at each site. Underwater sounds and surface craft activity are tightly controlled, which helps range operators assure successful torpedo firings. Sophisticated underwater hydrophone arrays are used to keep track of run and end-of-run positions of test weapons. Surface craft with directional underwater sound receivers are used to pinpoint the torpedo's location.

Large recovery craft capable of deploying a variety of tethered vehicles are vectored to recovery sites. Tracking data help provide information about the torpedo's condition such as whether it is floating, lying on the sea floor, or partially or fully buried. The recovery craft usually lowers the vehicle to assess torpedo status, to make the recovery, or to determine if another vehicle will be required to assist with recovery. Recovery operations are manpower intensive and can be extremely time consuming and costly.

Successful recoveries are a function of a number of factors independent of such obvious variables as sea state, weather, hardware, personnel, and support craft capability. For example, torpedoes are equipped with acoustic beacons (pingers), but if the pinger malfunctions, torpedo recovery is often impossible. Or, if the torpedo drops into a bad location, such as under cables, next to hydrophone arrays, or in crevices on the bottom, or floats in the water column, recovery operations become very difficult.

Improvements in recovery techniques and equipment, i.e. improvements that will cut costs, save time and reduce manpower are important to range operations.

The Navy has conducted research on several marine mammal systems which were devoted to solving or aiding recovery operations. It has been demonstrated in various projects that sea lions, dolphins, killer whales, and pilot whales can be trained to work in the open ocean and perform a variety of tasks. These animals have all learned to carry and attach devices to targets emitting acoustic signals.

Although the Navy projects have demonstrated a variety of recovery capabilities, information now available indicates that the project animals previously used may have operational limitations in cold and fresh water or in areas of low salinity or at deep diving depths in excess of 1,000 feet.

In accordance with the discoveries and invention of the method disclosed, the foregoing problems with underwater recovery operations are overcome as follows. Particularly, applicants have discovered that beluga whales have sonar and deep diving capabilities and that these animals can be trained to utilize these capabilities for recovery of pingered as well as non-pingered objects in water. More particularly, applicants have discovered and invented a system for providing a safe, rapid and economical means of marking and/or recovering acoustically active (pingered) and acoustically passive (non-pingered) objects from within a body of water and/or on the ocean floor. The beluga whale object recovery system has the advantages over other systems such as tethered remote controlled underwater vehicles and manned submersibles of simplicity, lack of requirement for large, expensive and sophisticated support equipment, rapid deployment capability, hardware attachment capability and also the ability to operate in strong currents and turbid waters.

The beluga whale recovery system of the present invention includes a trained beluga whale that performs the following behaviors. Upon command the trained beluga whale will beach itself onto a floating platform or modified boat. The beluga whale will allow itself to be transported on the platform or boat to the area of water to be searched. At the search area, the beluga whale is trained such that, while free swimming, it follows a small boat from its home base floating net pen or modified boat to the search area and then returns. Upon command, the beluga whale accepts a mouthpiece with associated attachment hardware. Utilizing its acoustic homing capabilities, it is trained to locate a pingered or non-pingered cylindrical object on the ocean floor or in the water column. It is then trained to dive down and attach the attachment hardware to the cylinder. The attachment hardware carries with it a lift line so that the underwater object may then be lifted via the lift line to the recovery boat.

Accordingly, it is the primary object of the present invention to disclose an underwater recovery method and system that is extremely simple and has no requirement for large, expensive and sophisticated support equipment.

It is a further object of the present invention to disclose an underwater recovery method that can be rapidly deployed and has the capability of operating in strong currents and turbid waters.

It is a concommitant object of the present invention to disclose an underwater recovery system using marine mammals that can be trained to locate non-pingered targets.

It is a still further object of the present invention to disclose an underwater recovery system that requires minimal support equipment and relatively few personnel for its operation.

It is another object of the present invention to disclose a beluga whale underwater recovery system that has the capability of recovering targets at relatively deep depths, e.g. 1300 feet.

Other objects, advantages and novel features of the invention will become apparent from the following detailed description of the invention when considered in conjunction with the accompanying drawings.

Sea Lions









Marine mammal underwater attachment and recovery tool

Publication number    US3722941 A
Publication date    27 Mar 1973
Filing date    3 Feb 1972
Inventors    Ashenden E, Seiple R, Webb R
Original Assignee    Us Navy
An attachment and recovery tool for recovery of underwater objects has two telescopically extending arms which together with a central portion encircles the object to be recovered. The telescopically extending arms are urged into object engaging position by spring motor means mounted on the central portion. Latch units mounted on each telescopic arm secure them in encircling engagement with the object to be recovered. Cable means carried by said latch means cooperate with a lifting line to raise the object to the surface.



Trained Navy dolphins losing out to robots
December 2nd, 2012 by Associated Press

SAN DIEGO – Some dolphins used by the Navy to track down mines will soon lose their jobs to robots – but they'll be reassigned, not retired. Starting in 2017, 24 of the Navy's 80 military-trained dolphins will be replaced by a 12-foot unmanned torpedo-shaped vehicle, according to UT San Diego. The military said the machines can do some of the same mine-hunting duties as the sea creatures. And they can be manufactured quickly, unlike the seven years it takes to train a dolphin. But the dolphins won't be relieved of duty. They'll be used along with sea lions for port security and retrieving objects from the sea floor, the newspaper reported. The Navy's $28 million marine-mammal program dates back to the late 1950s and once included killer whales and sharks. Based in San Diego, it currently uses 80 bottle-nosed dolphins and 40 California sea lions. In recent years, dolphins have been deployed to Iraq and Bahrain to patrol for enemy divers and mark the locations of mines. Using their innate sonar, the mammals find and mark mines in shallow water, in deep water when tethers are used, and on the bottom where sediment cover and plant growth can hide the devices. Dolphins are carried aboard Navy ships in large movable pools, about 20 feet in diameter. Dolphins traveled on the amphibious ship Gunston Hall in 2003 for the Iraq war. Most of the Navy's dolphins and sea lions are housed at Point Loma Naval Base, in pools sectioned off from the bay. Others guard Navy submarine bases in Georgia and Washington state, according to UT San Diego. The military is responsible for the mammals' care throughout their lives, even after they're retired from active duty. Sometimes Navy dolphins are loaned to animal parks, such as Sea World, later in life.


How to: A dolphin model is wearing some of the specially designed kit in a military museum.

Ukraine’s secret unit of spy DOLPHINS that can plant bombs and attack divers with guns have defected to Russia

The Ukraine Army has been using dolphins and seals since the 70s. After the fall of the USSR, the 'dolphin spies' remained in the Ukraine. The dolphins have been trained to hunt for mines and plant bombs. They can also attack divers with knives or pistols attached to their heads. Now, military dolphins in Crimea will be transferred to the Russian Navy.

By Will Stewart for MailOnline, Published: 22:09 EST, 26 March 2014 | Updated: 06:28 EST, 27 March 2014

Ukraine's secret unit of spy dolphins and seals have defected to Russia and are now swimming under Kremlin orders, officials revealed today.

The Army has been using the underwater mammals since the 70s, and they remained under Ukrainian command after the collapse of the Soviet Union.

The bottlenose dolphins are trained to hunt for mines, plant bombs on hostile ships or attack enemy divers with special knives or pistols fixed to their heads.

The use of bottlenose dolphins as naval assets was begun during the Cold War in Sevastopol by the Soviet Union in 1973. With the collapse of the USSR, they were enlisted in the Ukrainian navy.

Now after the Russian repossession of the Crimean peninsula this month, it was revealed today that the combat dolphins are now back under Kremlin control along with all 193 military units in the region.

‘The military dolphins serving in Crimea will be transferred to the Russian Navy,’ reported state-owned Russian news agency RIA Novosti.

In fact, Ukraine announced last month it was preparing to cease naval training with the mammals, so the Russian annexation of the Black Sea region has probably saved the unique underwater force.


Search and rescue: Dolphins were sent out on bomb missions where the army did not want to risk the life of a diver

Saturn-3-Future-Mar-80 - copy-x640

Source: Future Life, March 1980.
…..When he has the time, Rick [Sternbach] likes to go scuba diving and he is a professional marine mammal photographer. That interest, coupled with his technology bent, led him to create the spacefaring dolphin on the cover of this magazine.
This vision, which he titles "Cetacean Tomorrow," may at first appear more comic than cosmic, but Rick has concocted a nearly believable explanation for his imaginative sane: "He's a Pacific Bottlenose Dolphin, Tursiops gilli," Rick says, "born on December 3, 1985, at the San Diego Marine Mammal Facility of the National Aeronautics and Space Administration. The dolphin has been trained to use a pressure suit specially developed for space-traveling cetaceans. The suit contains a radar-to-sonar converter so the dolphin can scan in-space objects the same way he would underwater. It's also outfitted with a radio, an attitude control system using liquid nitrogen gas jets, a water circulation system and filter to keep his skin wet and clean (dolphins generate almost an entire layer of skin every day), and finally, a set of manipulators for working inside and out."
It may sound strange, but Rick's intent is not idle fantasy. "The theoretical capabilities of both the suit and the dolphin have been checked out by cetacean trainers and veterinarians," Rick reports. "They all agreed that it's 'different,' but nobody could see any major obstacles."

See other real early Underwater Robots here.

1959 – Sverdlovsk Cybernetic Tortoise – (Soviet)

English text translated from the original German: (for pictures and diagrams, see pdf below)

The Cybernetic Model "Tortoise"
Cybernetics – In recent years, a new science was born. It enables machines to replace with highly skilled human labor, eg by electronic calculators. These machines are very complicated in structure, and only specialists with high qualifications to deal with them properly.
To the study of cybernetics are very well cybernetic models with information stores, which the animal brain can exert partial analog functions. One such model is the "turtle" developed by the Institute of Automation and robot of the Academy of Sciences of the USSR. Publication of its construction in the magazines "knowledge is power" and "Radio" No. 3/1958 encouraged the study groups for robot and automatic Young engineer at the stations in Sverdlovsk region at this, even to make such a model.
Figure 11
View of the model
The present article is roughly the construction of such a "turtle" described, it is very easy as standardized components can be used.
The main task of this model is to help the students of the upper classes while the basics of automation and cybernetics studieren.1
The behavior of the "turtle"
Observed the movements of the "turtle" obstacles creates the impression that they possess animal-related reflections. Reacts to light you on audio signals and also bumping into.. Though primitive, but it has an organ of sight, hearing a , a sense of touch and memory (memory with a conditioned reflex can be briefly formed).
Here is the proof of their sensitivity to light., The "turtle" moves in a circle on their base until they discovered the source of light is the light beam detected, it moves straight to the lamp to the visual system consists of a photoresistor This photo resistor switched on.. light on the relay d 1 the control magnet (Part VII) from, so that the move can "turtle" straight. Here comes the "turtle" an obstacle, they returned a short run to move again after a little sideways rotation forward. This process is repeated as many times until a way is found to get around the obstacle.
Audio signals to the "turtle" reacts in the following way: If a whistle is given, it will stop for about a second.
The interesting thing about the "turtle" but their "memory", which is the formation of a conditioned reflex of importance. A conditioned reflex occurs whenever different, but at least two stimuli are combined. For the "turtle" the combination of sound and shock stimuli was chosen. Exceeds the "turtle" an obstacle and at the same moment you will hear a whistle, the result is a conditioned reflex. Now "suspects" the "turtle" at every whistle a
1 The "Turtle" is a principled solution for a cybernetic model that responds to three stimuli and can emerge a "conditioned reflex". There are of course also other variants, you can work with transistors that use other relays and also make the program more extensive. However, this model is to encourage the work of communities of our country to deal with such problems and also to develop new technical solutions in creative work.
Obstacle and executes the corresponding movements to bypass the obstruction. After a certain time (this time is determined by the corresponding timer) goes out of the conditioned reflex again, if not both stimuli occur simultaneously again.
Cybernetic models have generally fulfill an experimental feature. With them it is possible to simulate individual processes of the nervous activity of the living organism. Analogies are derived from the behavior of living organisms and machines for the development of automatic information processing systems is of utmost importance. This makes it possible logical actions performed by the person on the basis of information to transmit cybernetic machines or mechanisms. This has great significance for the growth of labor productivity. The introduction of automatic regulation and control in the production always leads to a significant acceleration of production and to increase the quality. Automated systems and aggregates react precisely, not tired and are less sluggish than man.
The circuit of the "turtle"
In the overall structure and the "turtle" there were the following problems to solve:
1 Recording the information (light, sound, shock). Forward to a computing element and storing the information in the formation of the conditioned reflex.
2 Realization of the output information by movement of the drive and control mechanisms. To achieve these objects both electronic and electro-mechanical units are required.
The schematic diagram (Fig. 12) shows the circuitry recording, processing and transformation of information into control operations. For a better overview, the individual units were included only in the block.
Part I
As a photo sensor resistor is used. It is also a photocell or a photo element to use, but then an electronic amplifier is required. The potentiometer 1M ohms lin is used to control the sensitivity of the photoresistor. The sensitivity
11 part
As a simple two-pole contact feeler is used. By the contact of the circuit of the left coil of the relay d 2 is closed when pushed. This is triggered by relay d 4 and d 5, the backward and sideways movement. The timer IV (Z 1) finished the operation after a short time.
Figure 13
The photoresistor circuit for Part I
24V Figure 14
Circuit of the touch probe for Part II
Figure 12 a schematic diagram for the technical operation of the turtle
Part III
As a probe microphone (single crystal microphone) is used. A two-stage amplifier where the incoming audio signal is enhanced in that a rectifier bridge in the left coil of the relay 3 d, a corresponding current flows. It is recommended that the sound frequency of the amplifier set so that only signals of a particular frequency will be processed in order to avoid interference from external noise.
Figure 12b with this circuit for the relay d 1 and d 4 maneuverability at around obstacles can be increased
is set so that the photo-resistor is not responding to diffuse light. For this reason, the use of a simple lens (Fig. 18) is very convenient.

Figure 15 circuit of the microphone amplifier for Part III (the tubes correspond about our EF 14)
When switching the relay relay d 3 d 6 is turned on and brought the turtle briefly to a halt. The duration of this operation is controlled by the second timing element (Z 2).
Part IV
The two timing elements Z 1 and Z 2 have a memory function. The incoming signal triggers an operation and will be for a short time (the duration is determined by the combination of C 2, R 6 set) is stored. No signal, the circuit for both windings of the relay d 2 and d 3, and C 2 is interrupted current. If a signal that flows in the left-hand winding of the relay power d 2 or d 3, and switched by the relay. Here, C 2 invites to over R 6 and the glow lamp ignites. Thus, the circuit of the right coil of the relay is closed briefly and the process ends. The circuit is therefore only briefly closed because it is unloaded immediately after switching the capacitor C through R 1 second For this circuit polarized relays are provided with zero position. However, it can be used with two windings, simple relays, however, the circuit has to be changed.
Figure 16
Circuit of the timers (Z 1, Z 2) of Part IV
Part V
The timer Z 3 is required to form the "conditioned reflex." If simultaneously on II and III, a signal, then the relay d 4 and d 6 set the grid of the tube for a short time to ground and discharging the capacitor C 10 . makes the anode current and the relay d 7 increases attracts. According to charging of C 10 drops in the tube again, the anode current., the time for charging of C 10 corresponds to the duration of the "conditioned reflex" (for the present model were about two minutes selected).
Figure 17
Circuit for the timer Z 3 in Part V
Part VI
As a drive motor an electric motor is used 24 V with the field winding. Ports 1 and 2 are for the field winding and are used to change the direction of rotation by the relay d 5 reversed. Via the terminals 3 and 4, the armature of the motor is fed.
By Relais d 6 is the exchange Contact 6b in a sound, the power supply is interrupted to the collector and the model stopped for a short time. The speed should be about 5 to 10 cm / s. With appropriate variation of the circuit can be used also a Permamotor.
Part VII
This part constitutes an electromagnet by means of which the circular motion of "tortoise" is controlled. Smaller no light on the photoconductor, then the circuit of the electromagnet is closed. This
Figure 18 look for the photo resistor
Figure 18a The turtle Elsie
On the shell of the turtle a candle (1) had been secured, a second candle (2) was placed at some distance. Between the candle and the turtle was a barrier (3). The shutter of the camera was opened and the turtle was left to itself. Your path is recorded in the photo. (4) starting position of the turtle (it starts moving toward the light source). (5) collision with the obstacle. (6), bypassing the restoration of the obstacle and movement direction of the light source. (7) The turtle happened to approach very close to the candle, the light was quite strong, the turtle was forced to retreat, they bypassed the candle. (From: IA Poletayev: Cybernetics German VEB Verlag der Wissenschaften, Berlin 1962, page 233.)
Figure 19 Base plate with drive and control
is given to the steering wheel, a rash of 20 °. In light relay drops d 1, and the steering wheel gets a straight-ahead position.
The mechanical structure
The "turtle" has an oval shape and the drive control is initially in the size of 220 mm X 290 mm. Built on the base plate. Assembly of electronic equipment should be done only when the drive and control function properly.
The chassis is composed of three rubber wheels, the diameter should be about 50 to 60 mm.
The Figure 19 shows the basic mechanical structure of the drive and the controller. For driving a double worm reducer was chosen because it allows the use of small gears. The arrangement of the worm gears and is shown in Figures 20 and 21.
Figure 20 Cross-section A A
Figure 21 section B B
7 [28004]
At the intended speed of 50 to 100 mm / s and the given wheel diameter, the rotational speed of the drive shaft does not exceed 20 to 30 U / min. In the example used with 32 and 24 teeth for a motor with 6000 to 8000 r / min and two common worm gears. If other wheels or a different motor is used, the reduction must be recalculated.
Greater friction loss can be avoided if only one wheel is rigidly connected to the drive shaft.
Figure 22 Cross-section C C
The principle of the magnetic control is seen in Figure 19 and 22. The steering wheel is located in a fork, in which a lever is attached. On this lever is effected by the solenoid, the spring, or a control stop. The stop control should be about 20 ° when the electromagnet. The steering wheel by the coil spring is held in the normal position.
Freely edited by a methodical instructions of the station Young Engineers in Sverdlovsk, published in 1959.

 See pdf of referenced chapter here

Sverdlovsk, name of the city of Yekaterinburg, Russia, from 1924 to 1991
Sverdlovsk, Ukraine, a town in Ukraine.

I suspect this Tortoise is from the Russian Sverdlovsk, not the Ukraine.


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1958 – “Tortilla” Cybernetic Tortoise – (Ukraine)

Fig. 38. Schematic of the charge, voltage conversion, the element changes tropism and chain contact device "turtle" "Tortilla".

Fig. 39. Schematic of extreme search direction of the "turtle" "Tortilla".

Fig. 40. Schematic of reaction "turtle" "Tortilla" with the whistle.

Information and images courtesy Waldemar Dekański from Poland (January 2010).

Hello Reuben!
I'm sending you Tortilla materials just received from Ukraine. It's part of a book by A. Yvahnenko "Technical Cybernetics". According to data the project and construction of the turtle was done by three engineers from Automatics Laboratory of Electrotechnical Institute in Kiev: T. Kravec, Y. Krementulo i E. Shukaylo. I presume it was built in 1958, the book describing the turtle was published in 1959. In the same year article was issued by J.Krementulo in "Automatika" magazine. I'm during intensive search for that article.
Cheers, Waldemar.
Кибернетическая черепаха. Рассмотрим еще пример программной системы, где самоизменение программы подчиняется не одному, а нескольким требованиям. Таким примером может быть «черепаха» Вальтера [9], [59], [50]. «Черепаха» представляет собой автоматическую игрушку,
воспроизводящую все основные черты поведения живой черепахи. Конструктивно она выполнена в виде небольшой тележки на трех колесах, на которой установлены два сервомотора (ход вперед и поворот), электромагнитные
реле, электронная аппаратура и питающий аккумулятор.
Если аккумулятор хорошо заряжен, то «черепаха»
ведет себя как сытая и ищет темный угол в комнате. Если
аккумулятор разряжен, то «черепаха» ищет кормушку.
Такой «кормушкой» служит место для зарядки аккумулятора, освещенное сильной электрической лампой.«Черепаха» ищет свет и, подойдя к месту зарядки, стоит там пока не зарядится аккумуляторы. Затем снова уходит в более темное место комнаты.
Первые «черепахи» Вальтера (под названием «Элси» и «Элмер») реагировали на источник света только в зависимости от состояния своего «желудка» (аккумулятора).
В следующей разработке («черепаха» «Кора») автор осуществил еще добавочную реакцию на свист. При свисте «черепаха» замирает, т. е. некоторое время не движется. Если свист повторяется весьма часто, то «черепаха» перестает на него реагировать и продолжает либо искать «кормушку», либо уходит от нее.
Если «черепаха» наталкивается на препятствия, то программа ее действий изменяется (элемент самоизменения программы). Она делает ход назад, поворот, а затем только продолжает поиск «кормущки».
Правила действий (алгоритм) «черепахи» можно записать в виде табл. 5.
В табл. 5 сигналы расположены по силе их действия. Сигнал от контактного датчика имеет преимущество перед сигналом фотоэлемента, а сигнал от микрофона действует сильнее всех других сигналов.
Из таблицы следует, что главными программами являются: программа N9 1, обеспечивающая поиск источника света, и программа М 2, обеспечивающая более быстрое движение «черепахи» по направлению к источнику света или от него. Каждая из этих программ может иметь ряд вариантов (количество ходов и величина их не оговаривались выше). Из вариантов программы тот лучше, при котором :
а) «черепаха» быстрее находит наиболее яркий источник света;
6) найдя источник, возможно быстрее движется к немо.- (или от него).
Важно также, чтобы «черепаха» наиболее точно выполняла требования, указанные в таблице, и не теряла источника света из своего поля зрения, т. е. чтобы, перейдя к программе No 2, не возвращалась снова где-либо в пути к программе М. 1. Таким образом, «черепаха» имеет несколько показателей качества программы, кроме того, ее движение еще подчинено ряду дополнительных требований (ограничений).
Ниже мы рассмотрим более подробно схемы управления «черепахи», удовлетворяющие этим требованиям.
После «черепах» английского инж. Вальтера автоматические «черепахи» разрабатывали австрийский инж. Земанах, немецкий инж. Эйхер и др.
В СССР различные конструкции «черепах» разрабатывались в Институте автоматики и телемеханики АН СССР (инж. А. М. Петровский и Р. Б. Васильев), в Московском инженерно-физическом институте, в Институте автоматики Грузинской ССР и др. «Черепаха» «Тортилла», описываемая ниже, разработана в лаборатории автоматического регулирования Института электротехники АН УССР. Экспериментальная часть выполнена инженерами Т. Д. Кравцем, Ю. В. Крементуло и Е. И. Шукайло.
С точки зрения техники экстремального регулирование основная программа «черепахи» может быть решена двумя различными способами :
1) при помощи системы колебательного экстремального поиска наиболее яркого места горизонта, осуществляемого одним фотоэлементом («черепаха» «Тортилла-1 ») ;
2) при помощи неколебательной обратной связи, осуществляемой двумя фотоэлементами, направленными под
небольшим углом в деве соседние точки горизонта («черепаха» «Тортилла-2»).
В последнем случае мы располагаем всеми точками экстремальной характеристики одновременно и потому можно осуществить систему неколебательного установления экстремума (подробнее см. выше) .
Колебательная система благодаря наличию фильтра более помехоустойчива. Неколебательная система проще и надежнее.
Для краткости дадим описание только «черепахи» «Тортилла-1» (с колебательным поиском)1.
На рис. 38 изображена схема экстремального регулирования направления движения «черепахи» «Тортилла-1». В ней применена система шагового экстремального регулирования, рассмотренная в предыдущей главе.
Система экстремального поиска «черепахи» «Тортилла-1» действует следующим образом. Напряжение, вырабатываемое фотоэлементом ЦГ-4, усиливается при помощи электронного усилителя и поступает затем на контактные устройства шагового распределителя ШР, имеющего четыре поля. Цикл работы системы весьма прост. На первом контакте второго поля шаговый распределитель производит стирание предыдущей записи с первого электронного запоминающего устройства 3У1, а вторым контактом первого поля производится на нем новая (первая) запись напряжения. Третий контакт второго поля осуществляет стирание записи со второго запоминающего устройства 3У2, а третий контакт четвертого поля включает напряжение на сервомотор СМ1, который поворачивает фотоэлемент на шаг 7,5°. После этого четвертым контактом первого поля производится вторая запись усиленного напряжения фотоэлемента на 3У2, а пятым контактом третьего поля – сравнение напряжений первой и второй записи. Элемент логического действия ЭЛД включает сервомотор СМ1 в направлении, обеспечивающем движение (вращение) фотоэлемента к направлению экстремальной (наибольшей или наименьшей) освещенности. затем цикл операций повторяется сначала.
одиннадцатый и двенадцатый контакты четвертого поля (рис. 39) используются для: а) включения напряжения на
1 «Черепаха» «Тортилла-2» описана Ю. В. Крементуло в журнале «Автоматика», Х2 2, 1959.
сер вомотор СМ2 продольного перемещения «черепахи»; б) замыкания на короткое время цепи реле перемены тропизма 1; в) перехода от программы \5 3 к программе \5 1 или 2 в случае, если «черепаха» встретила препятствие (см. табл. 5); г) для подачи импульсов на схему реакции «черепахи» на звук (рис. 40). Измерительным элементом системы служит мост М с двумя стабиловольтами СГ-ЗС см. рис. 38,. При определенном напряжении (выбираемом Рис. 40. Схема реакции «черепахи» «Тортилла» на свисток. произвольно путем установки тех или иных сопротивлении моста) напряжение на выходе моста изменяет знак, что и приводит к переключению поляризованного реле перемены тропизма РП.
Поляризованные реле РП2 и РПз образуют элемент логического действия ЭЛД по схеме равнозначности.
зарядка аккумулятора производится через контактную шину КШ и релерегулятор РР. Напряжение постоянного тока аккумулятора при помощи вибропреобразователя ВП преобразуется в высокое напряжение переменного тока. Последнее выпрямляется и используется для питания
Под переменой тропизма «черепахи» понимается переход от поиска света к поиску темноты и наоборот, в зависимости от напряжения аккумулятора.
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анодов 3У и усилителя фототоков. Датчик препятствий ДП при встрече с «черепахой» какого-либо препятствия срабатывает и при помощи реле РП,4 изменяет программу хода вперед на программу хода назад. В этом случае «черепаха» делает один шаг назад (на одиннадцатом контакте) и некоторое время двигается по направлению, перпендикулярному с направлением на источник света. Это достигается включением вместо основного вспомогательного
Рис. 41. Общий вид «черепахи» «Тортилла-2» .
фотоэлемента, направленного перпендикулярно оси «черепахи». Режим обхода препятствий кратковременный : как только подвижный контакт шагового распределителя дойдет снова до 12-ой ламели, то, как видно из схемы (рис. 39), основная программа «черепахи» восстанавливается.
Частота импульсов определяет собой скорость действий «черепахи». Скорость передвижения «черепахи» оказывается достаточной, если полный оборот распределителя происходит за б сек. В качестве генераторов импульсов можно использовать контактное устройтво, вращаемое отдельным двигателем.
Рассмотрим теперь действие цепи, осуществляющей реакцию «черепахи» на свисток (рис. 40). В качестве микрофона М использована пьезоэлектрическая телефонная трубка. Схема резонансного усилителя подобна схеме акустического управления радиоприемником, описанной в журнале
«Радио», М 4 за 1957 г. Реле Р1 на выходе схемы срабатывает под действием звука (свисток с частотой около
9000 гц) и останавливает оба сервомотора СМ1 и СМ2 «черепахи» (рис. 39).
Время остановки «черепахи» определяется параметрами нагрузки (1? и С) детектора. Если свистки повторяются редко, то конденсатор С успевает разряжаться, реле Р1 отпускает контакт и «черепаха» начинает снова двигаться. Если же свистки следуют часто, то напряжение на обмотке реле Р1 подымается выше некоторого предела, срабатывает реле Р2, шунтирует контакт реле Р1 и «черепаха» перестает реагировать на свистки. Блокировка реле Р2 снимается основным распределителем при прохождении через 12-ый контакт, если конденсатор к этому времени достаточно разрядится.
График типичного пути «черепахи» «Тортилла-1» к источнику света представляет собой ломаную линию. Общий вид «черепахи» «Тортилла» представлен на рис. 41.
Данные элементов «черепахи» «Тортилла» приведены па рис. 38-40.
Шаг поворота фотоэлемента составляет величину от 7,5 до 60° при частоте импульсов от 0,5 до 3 импульсов/сек. «Черепаха» реагирует на источник света (лампа накаливания мощностью 25 вт) на расстоянии до 3 м.
Некоторые дополнительные технические данные «черепахи» «Тортилла-1»
РП – поляризованное реле типа РП;
СМ – двигатели па 24 или вит. 27 в;
ШИ – шаговый искатель;
Тр – трансформатор, имеющий:
= 2 х 60 вит; д1 = 0,6 мм;
W2 = W3 = 3000 вит; д23 = 0,12 мм; В1В2 – выпрямители, собранные на ДГ-Ц24;
Б – аккумулятор типа 5 НКН-10: Напряжение тахогенератора 6 в.

English Translation

Cybernetic tortoise. Consider another example of a software system, where self-transformation program obeys no one, but several requirements. An example might be "tortoise" Walter [9], [59], [50]. "Turtle" is an automatic toy
reproducing all the main features of the behavior of living turtles. Structurally, it has been implemented in the form of a small truck on three wheels, in which there are two servo-motor (move forward and turn), electromagnetic
relays, electronic equipment and power supply battery.
If the battery is well charged, the "turtle"
behaves as a well-fed and looking for a dark corner in the room. If
the battery is discharged, the "turtle" is looking for a manger.
Such a "trough" is a place to charge the battery, illuminated by a strong electric light. "Turtle" is looking for the light and going to a place charging stands there until you charge the batteries. Then again takes place in a dark room.
The first "turtle" Walter (called "Elsie" and "Elmer") reacted to the light source only depending on the state of his "stomach" (battery).
In the next development ( "turtle" "bark"), the author conducted more additional responses to the whistle. When whistling of "turtle" freezes, ie, some time not moving. If the whistle is repeated very often, the "turtle" ceases to react to it and continues to seek a "feeder" or away from it.
If the "turtle" is impeded, the program changed its course of action (element of self-transformation program). She makes a move back, turn, and then just continues to search for "kormuschki.
Terms of action (algorithm) "turtle" can be written in the form of tables. 5.
Table. 5 signals are located on the strength of their actions. The signal from the contact sensor has an advantage over the photocell signal and the signal from the microphone effect is stronger than all the other signals.
The table shows that the main programs are: Program N9 1, provides a search of the light source, and the program of M 2, which provides a more rapid movement of "turtle" in the direction of the light source or away from him. Each of these programs may have a number of options (number of moves and not subject to value them above). Of the options program that is better, in which:
a) "turtle" quickly finds the most brilliant source of light;
6) finding the source as quickly as possible moves to dumb .- (or him).
It is also important to "turtle" most closely meet the requirements listed in the table and not lose the light source from its field of view, ie that by going to the program No 2, did not return again, somewhere in the path of the program M. 1. Thus, the "turtle" has a quality program, in addition, its movement is still subject to a number of additional requirements (constraints).
Below we consider the more detailed management scheme "turtle", satisfying those requirements.
After the "turtle" the British engineer. Walter automatic "turtle" develop an Austrian engineer. Zeman, a German engineer. Eyher etc.
In the USSR, various constructions of "turtles" were developed at the Institute of Automation and robot USSR (Ing. A. Petrovsky, R. B. Vasiliev), at the Moscow Engineering Physics Institute, the Institute of Automation of the Georgian SSR, etc. "Turtle" Tortilla ", described below, was developed in the laboratory of automatic control of the Institute of Electrical Akad. The experimental part is made by engineers TD Kravtsov, V. Krementulo and EI Shukaylo.
From the standpoint of extreme technology management core program of "turtle" can be solved in two different ways:
1) with the help of vibrational find the most extreme places of the bright horizon of single photocell ( "turtle" "Tortilla-1");
2) using nonoscillatory feedback undertaken by the two photocells directed at
slight angle to the horizon Maiden neighbor ( "turtle" "Tortilla-2").
In the latter case, we have all the points of extreme characteristics simultaneously, and therefore can be carried out to establish a system of nonoscillatory extremum (see above).
Oscillatory system thanks to the filter more robust. Nonoscillatory system is simpler and more reliable.
For brevity, only give a description of "turtle" "Tortilla-1" (with vibrational search) 1.
Fig. 38 is a diagram of extremal control the direction of "turtle" "Tortilla-1". It used a system of extremal control step considered in the previous chapter.
System of extreme search for "turtle" "Tortilla-1 operates as follows. Voltage, provided by a photocell CG-4, augmented by an electronic amplifier and then fed to the contact device stepper distributor WAF, which has four fields. The cycle of the system is very simple. At the first contact of the second field stepper valve makes erasing the previous record with the first electronic storage device 3U1, and the second contact of the first field is made on it new (first) record voltage. Third contact, the second field carries erasing records from the second storage device 3U2, and the third contact, the fourth field includes the voltage on the servo motor CM1, which turns the photocell step 7,5 °. After this, the fourth pin of the first field is the second record amplified voltage to the photocell 3U2, and the fifth contact, a third of the field – a comparison of the stress of the first and second record. Element of the logical steps ELD includes servo CM1 in the direction of securing the movement (rotation) of the photocell to the direction of the extreme (highest or lowest) illumination. then the cycle of operations is repeated again.
eleventh and twelfth contacts of the fourth field (Fig. 39) are used to: a) the inclusion of voltage
1 "Turtle" "Tortilla-2" described YV Krementulo in the journal "Automation", A2 2, 1959.
Ser vomotor SM2 longitudinal movement of "turtle", and b) circuit for a short time relay circuit changes tropism; 1) the transition from the program \ 5 3 to the program \ 5 1 or 2 if the "Tortoise" obstacles encountered (see Table. 5) d) to supply pulses to the reaction scheme "turtle" to the sound (Fig. 40). The measuring element of the system is a bridge with two M stabilivolt SG-AP, see Fig. 38. At a certain voltage (selectable Fig. 40. Scheme of the reaction of "turtle" "Tortilla" on the whistle. Arbitrarily by setting the resistance of some of the bridge) the bridge output voltage changes sign, which leads to a shift of the polarized relay RP tropism changes.
Polarized relay IS2 and RPZ constitute an element of logical steps ELD scheme equivalence.
Charging the battery is made through the contact bus SH and releregulyator PP. Voltage DC battery with vibrator MP is converted to high voltage alternating current. Last rectified and used to power
Under the change of tropism "turtle" refers to the transition from search to search the world of darkness and vice versa, depending on battery voltage.
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anodes 3U and amplifier photocurrents. Sensor obstacles DC at a meeting with the "turtle" is no impediment, and is triggered by relay RP, 4 modifies the program moves ahead on the program of the back. In this case, "turtle" makes one step back (at the eleventh contact) and for some time moving in a direction perpendicular to the direction of the light sources. This is achieved by inserting instead of the main support
Fig. 41. General view of the "turtle" "Tortilla-2".
photocell directed perpendicular to the axis of "turtle". Mode to avoid obstructions brief: as soon as the movable contact stepper distributor comes back to the 12th slats, then, as seen from the scheme (Fig. 39), the main program "Turtles" is restored.
The frequency of pulses determines the speed of action "Turtles". Speed of movement "turtle" is sufficient, if the total turnover of the distributor is used for the second. As pulse generators can use the contact ustroytvo waved in a separate engine.
We now consider the effect of the chain, carrying out the reaction of "turtle" on the whistle (Fig. 40). As the microphone M used piezoelectric handset. Scheme of the resonant amplifier circuit is similar to the acoustic / radio, described in the journal
"Radio", No. 4 for 1957 Relay R1 at the circuit output is triggered under the effect of sound (a whistle with a frequency of about
9000 Hz) and stops the servomotor both CM1 and SM2 "turtle" (Fig. 39).
Time stop "turtle" is determined by the parameters of load (1? And C) detector. If the whistles are rarely repeated, the capacitor C has time to be discharged, the relay R1 releases the contact, and "turtle" again begins to move. If, however, often followed by the whistles, the voltage across the relay coil R1 rises above a certain limit, relay P2, shunts the relay contact P1 and "turtle" ceases to respond to whistles. Blocking relay P2 is removed the main distributor in passing through the 12th contact, if the capacitor at that time sufficiently discharged.
Schedule a typical path of "turtle" "Tortilla-1" to the light source is a broken line. General view of the "turtle" "Tortilla" is presented in Fig. 41.
These elements of the "turtle" "Tortilla" shown in Fig. 38-40.
Step turning the photocell is a quantity from 7.5 to 60 ° at a frequency of pulses from 0,5 to 3 pulses / sec. "Turtle" responds to the light source (incandescent lamp of 25 W) at a distance of 3 m.
Some additional technical data "turtle" "Tortilla-1"
RP – polarized relay type RP;
SM – engines pas 24 or vitamin. 27 in;
SHI – step seeker;
Tr – transformer with:
= 2 x 60-vit; D1 = 0.6 mm;
W2 = W3 = 3000 vitamin; d23 = 0.12 mm; V1V2 – rectifiers, gathered at the DW-TS24;
B – Battery type 5 ICH-10: Tacho Voltage 6.

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