The mechanical model was developed at the Institute VNIITRANSMASH (St. Petersburg). The parameters of the machine are the follows: body length 0,6 m and body width 0,25 m, weight 40 kg, length of leg 0,4 m (Efimov et al., 1982).
Efimov, V., Kudriasev, M. & Titov, A.(1982). Investigation of Robotics Systems, chap. A Physical Similar of Motion Walking Apparatus, pp. 86–91. Moscow, (in Russian): Publishing “Nauka".
Note different spelling of the translated name Kudriasev, Kudriavtsev
(Dr. M.V. Kudriavtsev, V. A. Efimov, A.F. Titov, St. Petersburg, Russia.)
Note: I have very little on this walking machine. I have not even 100% confirmed that the images are related to the machine described by the authors of the paper.
See a few seconds of "NMIIIA" in operation in the above Walking Machine compilation video.
As it exists today in Volga city of Togliatti is widely known as the birthplace of "Lada" and "LAD". But there is another interesting attraction, which we know not all – the Technical Museum of AvtoVAZ (Технический музей ОАО «АвтоВАЗ»).
"NMIIIA" six-leg walking running mock-up (1985)
The running mock-up was created for debugging of the walking propulsive device and control system. The computer control system, "sensation" system, round-up- information system, driver place. Hinges of mechanisms for "leg" transfer, "thigh" bending have electromechanical drives.
The driver, whose seat is located in the center, moved the three-link bar mechanism, copying in miniature one of three pairs of legs the machine. А real leg repeating all these movements. In addition to manual control, provided was computational and control system equipped with a joystick.
Load-carrying capacity…………80 kg
Travel speed…………………….0.7 km/h
Step length………………..…….2 m
The insect-like walkers were referred to as "cockroaches".
In the early 70s, at the Institute of Applied mathematics (IPM) of the Russian Academy of Sciences in Moscow, a six-legged walking machine controlled on a base of a mathematical model of motion control was developed. The machine motion and the terrain were rendered on a display. Motion control algorithms were developed for a walking machine on rugged terrain in both automated and operator control modes. The problems of control were also considered for a dynamic model of a statically stable walking machine (Okhotsimski & Platonov, 1973, 1976).
See video simulation here – "Taking an Ant for a Walk".
In this small video compilation there is a few seconds of the simulation under joystick control.
The first six-legged machine was equipped with a laser scanning range finder and is connected with a two-computer system. The walker could move around isolated obstacles which were detected remotely by a scanning distance-measuring system, and could climb over obstacles (see Fig. 2.9).
The parameters of the machine are the follows: body length 0,6 m, body width 0,25 m, weight 56 kg, length of leg 0,4 m, velocity 0,2 m/s (Okhotsimski & Platonov, 1976; Okhotsimski et al., 1978).
Okhotsimski, D. & Platonov, A.(1973). Control algorithm of the walking climbing over obstacles. In Proc. of the Third Intern. Joint Conference on Artificial Intelligence. Stanford, California.
Okhotsimski, D. & Platonov, A.(1976). Walker’s motion control. In Proc. of CISM-IFToMM Symp. “ROMANSY-76”. Warsaw, Poland.
Okhotsimski, D., Platonov, A., Gerken-Gubanov, G., Kuznetzov, V., Devjanin, E., Lensky, A., Gurfinkel, E. & Schneider, A.(1978). Integration walking robot
simulation and modeling. In 7th Congress IFAC,, , vol. 2, pp. 917–924. Helsinki: Pergamon Press.
Okhotsimsky, D. & Golubev, Y.(1984). Motion mechanics and control of motion an automated walking vehicle, p. 312. Moscow, (in Russian): Publishing House “Nauka”.
Okhotsimsky, D., Platonov, A., Kiril’chenko, A., Lapshin, V. & Tolstousova, V.(1992). Walking machines. Advances in Mechanics. Keldysh Institute of Applied Mathematics, Moscow 15 (1–2), 39–70.
Okhotsimsky is on the right.
There was a 'family' of these walking machines. See also "Masha" and another of Gurfinkel's walking machine here (not yet posted).
In 1974, a hexapod with legs arranged radially about a central vertical axis was made in the Aviation Instrument Institute in St.Petersburg. (Ignatyev et al, 1974).
Ignatyev, M., F.M.Kulakov & Mihaeilov, A.(1974). Algorithms for control of robot-manipulators. Mechanics of Machines 46, “Nauka”, Moscow, (in Russian).
[RH-2012- The arm on the hexapod is actually the end-effector of the main robot on the right-hand side, and not the other way around. They are not connected.]
Image: 6-legged walker together with separate manipulator. The gripper end is touching the top of the walker.
Vukobratovich M. Shagayuschie roboty i antropomorfnye mehanizmy / M. Vukobratovich. – Moscow : Mir, 1976. – 544p.
M.B. Ignatiev with colleagues (Leningrad [, USSR – now Saint Petersburg, Russian Federation, remark of translator]) designed six-legged adaptive walking machine with hydraulic actuator.
PhD in Technical Sciences, Professor Mikhail B. Ignatiev is a specialist in the field of automatic and automated systems. He conducted research in the field of cybernetics, systems analysis and computer engineering, robotics. He created the world's first underwater robot controlled by a computer (1968), the industrial robot with a visual adaptation (1970), the adaptive six-legged walking machine (1972), the first flexible automated metal workshop at the Dnepropetrovsk Electric Locomotive Plant (1979).
Kozyrev Y.G. Promyshlennye roboty : Spravochnik / Y.G. Kozyrev. – [2nd edition] – Moscow : Mashinostroenie, 1988. – 392p.
The walking robot with six multilink legs. Six legs are placed symmetrically around of the six-corner frame. Such structure provides ability of motion in any direction without change of stereotype of extremity‘s movement, but with change of consistency of extremity‘s action only.
With his colleague M. V. Aristova, Ignatiev developed manipulators. In the above photo is the manipulator which is also shown placing an object on the flat top of the 6-legged walker in the images at the top of this post..
It is believed by the author that the above two concept images are related to Ignatiev's Hexapod walking machine, but has not been able to confirm it at this time.
This paper shows that in the task of the maintenance of constant orientation of the body of a walking robot the determination of the actual position of the body, i.e. absolute altitudes of its points and remoteness from the supporting surface, is the most complicated problem. Two possible systems of measurement and stabilization of the position by the height of the body of the walking mechanism are compared, i.e. a system of adaptation automatically adjusting the length of the supporting leg to the roughness of the terrain, and the system of the maintenance of constant remoteness of the body from the terrain. The inefficiency of a solitary application of any described system is revealed and the possibility of an accumulation of errors of the position of the body by the walking on the soft terrain is shown.
Possible approaches for raising the quality of stabilization of the body by the walking are evaluated.