Posts Tagged ‘Manned Utility Tug’

1962 – Nonanthropomorphic Space Suit (Concept) – Douglas Aircraft Corp (American)

For Douglas Aircraft, in 1962,  their earlier space manipulator designs, i.e., the Project Mercury converted capsule and the "Humpty Dumpty" unit, can be considered as first-generation, feasible, nonanthropomorphic devices. A much more speculative concept, but in every sense within our technological reach, is shown in figure 3 above. This is basically a space tug and repair vehicle and is spheroidally shaped. Viewing this figure, we see:
a. The control console will release doors on mechanical arms and legs, select various extensions, select self-viewing TV cameras, select receivers (communications), and regulate gyro control.
b. The 3-D helmet is a contained electronic unit and inside is a dot-type screen instead of the usual cathrode-ray tube. The image surface is hemispheroidal to reproduce real optical effects. The hemisphere would fit on the face over each eye to achieve stereoscopic effects. As the observer rotates his head he picks up the next camera transmission – not as a separate picture but as a continuously integrated picture. In actual use, the helmet could be reduced to a much smaller head set.
c. Expanding arms use servomotors with variable current control. They are run by operational gloves.
d. When the operator is positioned in the attitude seat, he has a complete attitude control of the sphere as he has of his own body.
e. Television cameras are placed on the main periphery of the globe.
f. Jet stabilizers are located between the cameras.

Source: "Survey of Remote Handling in Space", D. Frederick Baker,  USAF, 1962

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1965-8 – Space Pod – 2001: A Space Odyssey – Clarke (British) / Kubrick (American)

EVA Pod – The EVA Pod is a fictional spacecraft used for extra-vehicular activity seen in the movie 2001: A Space Odyssey. The Jupiter spacecraft Discovery One carries three of these small, one-man maintenance vehicles.

[EVA – Extra-Vehicular Activity i.e. activity outside of the prime space vehicle.]

Film stage.

Detail of manipulator arms. Illustrations by Simon Atkinson.

It has always intrigued me as to why the manipulator arms were designed they way they were i.e. a pair of forearms on each arm. Practically one can only use a single arm/gripper at one time. In most scenes featuring the pod in action, only one arm/gripper are used at any one  time.

I feel the reason may be that, for large objects, the paired forearms act as a large gripper in itself. For the film, it may have been designed this way as the only practical means of recovering Poole's body, as seen in the two images below.

Fred Ordway III was the key technical consultant for Stanley Kubrick's sci-fi masterpiece "2001: A Space Odyssey" .

A lucky moment came in January 1965, as Ordway explained in a book, "2001: A Space Odyssey in Retrospect." He was in New York to meet with publishers for a book he and a colleague, Harry H.K. Lange, had written and illustrated about future life in space. He learned that his friend, Arthur Clarke, a British science writer, was in town and so requested they meet. During their discussion about the space program and Wernher von Braun, they learned each was developing story themes in common.

Clarke happened to be working with Stanley Kubrick on a screenplay for Space Odyssey, which was based on Clarke's earlier work, "The Sentinel." Ordway and Lange's book "Intelligence in the Universe", co-authored by Roger A. MacGowan of the Army Computation Center in Huntsville was essentially the same concept: man facing the immensity of the universe and that life may exist out among the stars.

They showed Clarke their artwork and talked more before adjourning for other engagements. Before leaving the club, Ordway got an unexpected call. It was Kubrick, whom Clarke had notified immediately after his meeting with Ordway and Lange. From then on he was engaged as Kubrick's technical consultant on space issues.

Footnote: August 2014:  Sadly, Fred Ordway passed away on July 1, 2014, aged 87. A Harvard graduate and a former NASA scientist for the Saturn V rocket, he had an unquenchable thirst for learning about the universe and excelled as an educator, researcher, consultant and author..

Front Elevation.

Side Elevation: Illustrations by Simon Atkinson.

Robert McCall's promotional film poster.

Stanley Kubrick on set with the Pods.

Portrait of Arthur C. Clarke.

Nemean's Space Pod design as described in Clarke's earlier short stories such as ‘Who’s There?’ and ‘Summertime on Icarus’ is much more of a stubby cylinder.

Space Pod Specification: Sourced from here.


Title: Grumman DC-5 EVA Craft
Number Produced:  45
14 for Space Station Five,
11 for Space Station Four
7 for Space Station Three***
5 Replacement vehicles
4 test vehicles
3 for Discovery One
1 Replica**
1 for Discovery Prototype
Mass at Earth Gravity: 1,387 Kg.
Overall Diameter: 1.98 m.
Capacity: One Person Standard; Three Person Emergency
Propulsion systems: Ten Mk 12 (140 Kgs. Thrust) for major course changes along all axes; Eight Mk 17 (35 Kgs. Thrust) for precision maneuvers; Eight Mk 8 micro-thrusters (10 Kgs.) for low-gravity station-keeping; Five Mk 14 (80 Kgs. Thrust)  provide roll; One Mk 37 (500 Kgs. Thrust) for use in emergency.
Life Support: 12 Hrs. (One Person)
Radar: Grumman EPS-2D; Long Range; Active Pulse
Other Equipment: Explosive Bolt Door Separation*; Short-range Object Approach System and Transponder; Complete HAL 9000 Data link System; Automatic Thruster Control; Auto Hover; Eight-Channel communication system; Advanced Manipulator Control System; Two-hour Oxygen Reserve System.
Notes: The Grumman DC-5 carries can carry little in the way of food and water stocks, due to short life support capacity. A single air conditioning vent is provided.
Misc. Technical Information: (From Frederick Ordway and the British Interplanetary Association)
Propulsion: A subliming solid system provides vernier propulsion, wherein the solid propellent sublimes at a constant pressure and is emitted from a nozzle. Such reaction jets will last for long periods of time, have great reliability and use no mechanical valves. The main propulsion system is powered from by storable liquids.
Mechanical Hand Controls: Selection controls are placed on each side so that the appropriate hand must be removed from the manipulator to select a tool or to park. Selection of a tool returns the arm to the 'park' position, where it leaves the 'hand', then the arm goes to the appropriate tool and plugs in. In doing so, it inhibits the 'finger' controls on the manipulator, so that when the operator returns his hand into the glove he can only move a solid object, not individual fingers.
Television: It was found possible to produce all-round TV coverage with eight fixed cameras. This, however, did not give a sufficiently accurate picture for docking or selecting a landing space. For this purpose, the field of view can be narrowed or orientated; controls are included for this purpose.
Normally, the TV link is occupied by the internal camera, so that the parent craft can monitor the pod interior. The pilot can switch in any other camera for specific purposes (survey, etc.) reverting to interior camera for normal work.
Proximity Detector: This is the safety system with omnidirectional coverage working from the main communication aerials. It gives audible warning when the pod approaches a solid object. This is necessary as a safety measure as the pilot cannot monitor seven or eight TV displays continuously. The system also detects an approach to an object, the speed of which is too high to be counteracted by the vernier thrust settings on the control system. In this event, full reverse thrust is applied, overriding the manual control setting. The system depends upon a frequency modulated transmission and under safe conditions results in a low, soft audible background signal. This continuous signal is considered necessary in order to provide a continuous check on a vital safety system. If the speed of an approach to an object becomes dangerous compared with the distance from it, the tone becomes louder and higher pitched, and, if unchecked, end in a shrill note accompanied by reverse thrust. The system also works in conjunction with a transponder (to the give the necessary increased range) to measure distance from the Discovery.
Flying Controls: Manual controls are considered necessary both as a standby and for local maneuvers. Two hand control sticks, each with two degrees of freedom and fitted with twist grips, provide the necessary control about six axes.
Analog information is presented for attitude, heading rate and distance; these can be referred to local ground (for landing, takeoff, etc.), course (which enables the pilot to face forward, head up, on any preselected course, or parent ship (for docking, local maneuvers, etc.) This data has to be presented, as the pilot has to act immediately on them. This is the most easily assimilated display. A variation in full scale rate, which can be applied by the control sticks, is included; this allows the full stick movements to result in any proportion of vernier motor thrust, thus giving a 'fine' control for local maneuvers.

*When I think about it, I don't think the door ever separated from the pod. It seems that it was simply opened extremely quickly by the explosive bolts. If the door actually WAS blown off, it would have smashed into the airlock's outer door; breaking into several pieces. This would fly back towards Dave, and as many people would put it, that would be a very bad thing.
**This is non-operational, and do not carry any functional systems. The single replica is currently on display at the NASM's "21st Century Space Flight" display.
***Earlier Space Stations are not capable of supporting the design.

Interior of the Pod.

Pre-production sketches.

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1971-2 – Apollo-Soyuz Shuttle Manipulator – Caldwell Johnson (American)

Apollo-Soyuz Shuttle Manipulator Demo (1971-1972) –   By David S. F. Portree  ,    05.14.2012

During the 1983 STS-7 mission, the crew of  Shuttle Challenger used the Remote Manipulator System arm to deploy and retrieve the SPAS satellite, which captured this iconic image. The arm, bent to form the numeral “7,” is visible near the front of Challenger’s payload bay. Image: NASA.

Caldwell Johnson, co-holder with Maxime Faget of the Mercury capsule patent, was chief of the Spacecraft Design Division at NASA’s Manned Spacecraft Center (MSC) in Houston when he proposed that astronauts test prototype Space Shuttle manipulators during Apollo Command and Service Module (CSM) missions in Earth orbit. In a February 1971 memorandum to Faget, MSC’s director of Engineering and Development, Johnson described the manipulator test mission as a worthwhile alternative to the Earth survey, space rescue, and joint US/Soviet CSM missions then under study.

At the time, the Apollo 18, 19, and 20 lunar missions had been cancelled and the second Skylab space station (Skylab B) appeared increasingly unlikely to reach orbit. NASA managers foresaw that the mission cancellations would leave them with a stock of surplus Apollo spacecraft and Saturn rockets after the last mission to Skylab A. They sought low-cost Earth-orbital missions that would put the surplus hardware to good use and fill the expected multi-year gap in U.S. piloted missions between Skylab and the first Space Shuttle launch.

Twin human-like robot arms deploy from the Apollo CSM SIM Bay to grip the derelict Skylab space workshop. Image: NASA/Caldwell Johnson.

Johnson envisioned Shuttle manipulators capable of bending and gripping much as do human arms and hands, thus enabling them to hold onto virtually anything. He suggested that a pair of prototype arms be mounted in a CSM Scientific Instrument Module (SIM) Bay, and that the CSM “pretend to be a Shuttle” in operations with the derelict Skylab space station. The CSM’s three-man crew could, he told Faget, use the manipulators to grip and move Skylab. They might also use them to demonstrate a space rescue, capture an “errant satellite,” or remove film from SIM Bay cameras and pass it to the astronauts through a special airlock installed in place of the docking unit in the CSM’s nose.

Faget enthusiastically received Johnson’s proposal (he penned “Yes! This is great” on his copy of the February 1971 memo). The proposal generated less enthusiasm elsewhere, however.

Undaunted, Johnson proposed in May 1972 that Shuttle manipulator hardware replace Earth resources instruments that had been dropped for lack of funds from the planned U.S.-Soviet Apollo-Soyuz Test Project (ASTP) mission. He asked Faget for permission to perform “a brief technical and programmatic feasibility study” of the concept. Faget gave Johnson leave to prepare a presentation for Aaron Cohen, manager of the newly created Space Shuttle Program Office at MSC.

Twin robot arms capture a satellite. Image: NASA/Caldwell Johnson.

In his June 1972 presentation to Cohen, Johnson declared that “[c]argo handling by manipulators is a key element of the Shuttle concept.” He noted that CSM-111, the spacecraft tagged for the ASTP mission, would have no SIM Bay in its drum-shaped Service Module (SM), and suggested that a single 28-foot-long Shuttle manipulator could be mounted near the Service Propulsion System (SPS) main engine in place of the lunar Apollo high-gain antenna. During ascent to orbit, the manipulator would ride folded beneath the CSM near the ASTP Docking Module (DM) within the streamlined Spacecraft Launch Adapter.

During SPS burns, the astronauts would stabilize the manipulator so that acceleration would not damage it by commanding it to grip a handle installed on the SM near the base of the CSM’s conical Command Module (CM). Johnson had by this time apparently dropped the concept of an all-purpose human hand-like “end effector” for the manipulator; he informed Cohen that the end effector design was “undetermined.”

The Shuttle manipulator demonstration would take place after CSM-111 had undocked from the Soviet Soyuz spacecraft and moved away to perform independent maneuvers and experiments. The astronauts in the CSM would first use a TV camera mounted on the arm’s wrist to inspect the CSM and DM, then would use the end effector to manipulate “some device” on the DM. They would then command the end effector to grip a handle on the DM, undock the DM from the CSM, and use the manipulator to redock the DM to the CSM. Finally, they would undock the DM and repeatedly capture it with the manipulator.

A single manipulator arm grips the Docking Module used to link the Apollo and Soyuz spacecraft in Earth orbit. Image: NASA/Caldwell Johnson.

Johnson estimated that new hardware for the Shuttle manipulator demonstration would add 168 pounds to the CM and 553 pounds to the SM. He expected that concept studies and pre-design would be completed in January 1973. Detail design would commence in October 1972 and be completed by July 1, 1973, at which time CSM-111 would undergo modification for the manipulator demonstration.

Johnson envisioned that MSC would build two manipulators in house. The first, for testing and training, would be completed in January 1974. The flight unit would be completed in May 1974, tested and checked out by August 1974, and launched into orbit attached to CSM-111 in July 1975. Johnson optimistically placed the cost of the manipulator arm demonstration at just $25 million.

CSM-111, the last Apollo spacecraft to fly, reached Earth orbit on schedule on July 15, 1975. By then, Caldwell Johnson had retired from NASA. CSM-111 carried no manipulator arm; the tests Johnson had proposed had been judged to be unnecessary. That same month, the U.S. space agency, short on funds, invited Canada to build the Shuttle manipulator arm. The Remote Manipulator System – also called the Canadarm – first reached orbit on board the Space Shuttle Columbia during STS-2, the second flight of the Shuttle program, on November 12, 1981.


Memorandum with attachment, EW/Chief, Spacecraft Design Division, to EA/Director of Engineering and Development, Flight Demonstration of Shuttle docking and cargo handling techniques and equipment using CSM/Saturn 1-B, NASA Manned Spacecraft Center, February 1, 1971.

Memorandum with attachment, EW/Chief, Spacecraft Design Division, to PA/Special Assistant to the Manager, Demonstration of Shuttle manipulators aboard CSM/Soyuz rendezvous and docking mission, NASA Manned Spacecraft Center, May 25, 1972.

Memorandum with attachment, EW/Chief, Spacecraft Design Division, to LA/Manager, Space Shuttle Program Office, Proposal to Demonstrate Shuttle-type Manipulator During Apollo/Soyuz Test Project, NASA Manned Spacecraft Center, June 28, 1972.

Source:, May, 2012.

See other early Space Teleoperators here.

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1961 – Space Maintenance Capsule and Adapter – NORAIR (American)

Participation in various system studies concerned with space and extraterrestrial environments has developed within Northrop Corporation, Norair Division, an acute awareness of the requirements for extra-vehicular protection of personnel in these unfriendly environments. This awareness has led to classification of work environments, anticipated tasks, and consideration of remote-handling solutions to special problems. The resulting remote-handling concept runs a gamut of complexity from manned to unmanned devices. The Northrop approach to remote-handling equipment is summarized in figure 1.

The individual factors are more completely defined in table I.

The following design considerations for both the overall system, the remote-handling systems, and other subsystems directly affect the requirements for remote-handling equipment:
System Compatibility
Vehicles, subsystems, and components must be designed to be compatible with the handling system to insure that it is possible to:
a. Minimize the number and types of tools required
b. Minimize the number of operations required to install, remove, and replace test  
and checkout equipment, etc.
c. Minimize the force required for tool effectiveness  
Visual Presentation  
It is essential that the task area be visible to the Operator either through:
a. Direct view, or
b. Visual aids (optical system, electronic system)  
Ease of Operation and Maintenance
As with any system for use in connection with space operations, it is mandatory that the system require minimum maintenance and easy operation. This then requires factors of:
a. High reliability
b. Adequate operator restraint for extra-vehicular operations
c. Balanced forces and masses for minimum perturbations  
Environmental Protection  
Extra-vehicular operations may require special protection devices such as:
a. Sunshades
b. Meteor screens
c. Inflatable structures
d. Furiable structures

The human engineering problems associated with remote manipulators are numerous and difficult. Experience generally suggests three major problem areas where research efforts may be most profitable:
Many of the manipulator problems may be traced to either a lack of, or an inappropriate, feed-back arm or grasping mechanism. In the "natural" setting, an operator may use any one or a combination of his senses to obtain the necessary feedback information. However, when the operator uses existing remote manipulators, the distance to the manipulated object, the intervening manipulator mechanisms, and the "unnatural" control-display relations may place blocks or filters in the feed-back channels. Research directed toward removal of these blocks and filters or toward substitution of alternate channels appears promising. Experiments are now being conducted on a method for providing actual feedback for manipulators. Tentative research suggests that back pressures or kinesthetic feedback on control arms may not be required for all the degrees of freedom.
It appears very difficult to give the operators direct analogy of the qualities of texture and temperature. Assuming that research analysis shows these qualities are necessary, further investigation may be pursued toward using alternate feedback channels. For instance, research has shown the feasibility of using an auditory feedback which gives an indirect indication of texture and temperature.
A great deal of data is available to establish and identify the role of vision and visual feedback in the performance of manual tasks. It is important that the design of manipulators be such that the necessary visual functions are included. Hence, the human factor problem area is not the redefinition of well established visual requirements but rather the determination of the effects of the various restricting factors associated with manipulators, such as distance, optical limitations, etc.
To illustrate, the stereoptic visual function required for various manual tasks is well established. However, stereoptic cues diminish rapidly with distance, become distorted with most optics, and are difficult to maintain with existing stereo-television systems. A series of investigations and experiments has been conducted to develop a stereoptical rangefinder with television which may be applied to providing stereopsis for manipulator use.
The human engineering problem area with respect to other senses is somewhat different from that for the visual or kinesthetic and tactical feedbacks. For these other feedback senses (i.e., auditory, olfactory, etc.), two research needs are prominent. First, more information will be needed on the roles which these other senses actually play in manipulative tasks. Second, more information will be needed on the roles these senses can play. To illustrate the first, it might be asked just how important is it for the manipulator operator to hear a bolt tightening? The second might be illustrated by asking  what are the limits of a blind man's auditory information?
Manipulator  Strength, Dexterity, and Mobility
This second major human engineering problem area is concerned with the strength, mobility, and dexterity requirements of the man-manipulator subsystems. There are two major phases to determining these human engineering requirements. The first is the need for gathering and classifying basic data through function and task analysis methods. The second into consider and evaluate alternate methods.
Integration of Manipulator and Manipulated Objects
A third major problem area lies in the integration of a man-manipulator subsystem with the equipment on which it will be used. To date, the manipulator and its operator have had to do the job of handling items designed pimarily for manual handling and operation. Because these items were built for manual handling, the design philosophy of existing manipulators has been, to one degree or another, to try to duplicate the physical characteristics of the human. Manipulators built to this philosophy are logically limited at best to human physical limitations, and in practice, to only a fraction of these limitations. However, by designing system components for manipulator handling rather than for manual handling, the limits of the anthropomorphic approach are removed. Certain functions and tasks could possibly be accomplished more efficiently with man-manipulator subsystems than by current manual methods.

The maintenance capsule illustrated in figure 2 would give the operator a direct-handling capability by means of the gloved sleeves or detachable tools. Semi-remote handling capability would be obtained either by attaching remote-handling tools to the ends of the sleeves (in lieu of gloves) or by attaching at the capsule-sleeve interface, Further remote-handling capability would be provided by combining the capsule with an adapter as shown in figure 3.
A capsule of the type indicated would serve as a multi-purpose vehicle providing: (a) protection for personnel engaged in maintenance or repair operations, (b) an emergency escape vehicle, and (c) an emergency rescue vehicle. The capsule would consist of a multiple-walled cylinder equipped with adjustable slippers that move over a rail network on the satellite's exterior. Used in conjunction with the stabilizers, these slippers provide constraint for the capsule during translations along the surface of this satellite and stabilization during maintenance and repair operations. Maneuvering jets are provided for control during the infrequent times when the capsule would be detached from the satellite. Flexible sleeves equipped with couplings for either gloves or special tools would be located below the observation window. A spotlight for illuminating the work area is located on the chest area, and stowage facilities for parts or tools are conveniently located around the surface. The capsule would also be equipped with the systems necessary to support a man for several days. However, these systems are used only intermittently or during an emergency since the parent satellite would supply air, power, and communications through an umbilical connected near the work area.
For external maintenance operation, the occupant of the capsule would be provided with an emergency full pressure suit. The capsule is equipped with rendezvous couplings which are compatible with all of the parent vehicle's external airlocks and airtight doors. When these couplings are retracted the capsule can be taken into the satellite via the personnel airlock for maintenance and servicing of the capsule systems.
Figure 3 illustrates the adaptor concept. Here, the manned capsule shown in figure 3 is mated with the adaptor and is connected to the adaptor's systems by umbilicals. The adaptor is provided with a heavy-duty micromanipulator for handling large masses and with light-duty micromanipulators for performing more precise operations such as tuning and adjusting internal components. The device is supported by four adjustable legs which clamp to the parent vehicle's structure. Free space maneuverability is provided by the capsule's maneuvering jets. Maneuverability over the parent vehicle's structure in accomplished by sliding the adaptor along an external rail network. The capsule can leave the adaptor when the task is completed. The adaptor provides power, propulsion expellant, parts storage, a holding fixture (the heavy-duty micromanipulator) for parts being worked on by the micromanipulators or by the gloved or tooled capsule arms, and other supporting systems such as illumination, test and check capabilities, etc.

Source: "Survey of Remote Handling in Space", D. Frederick Baker,  USAF, 1962

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1961 – Manned Space Manipulators – Lockheed Aircraft Corporation (American)

The first manipulative tasks required of man in a space operation will be those associated with establishing a station in orbit or with operating a manned vehicle or station in orbit. Practical environmental control systems required for human survival will probably result in performance degradation at best and total incapability at worst.
It in assumed that a human operator will be necessary to monitor, control, or perform assembly and repair operations in space. The various degrees of human input in increasing order of human contribution are thus typified in
a. Self-repairing or self-assembling systems
b. Robot-repairing or robot-assembling systems
c. Human operator-repairing or human operator-assembling systems.
The Self-repairing or self-assembling systems are systems which are completely mechanised. Since the space environment will not affect their basic functioning substantially, only monitoring is necessary.
The robot-repairing and robot-assembling systems add mobility to the required operations. However, such systems have seldom proved satisfactory in the earth environment and their deficiencies are compounded in space.
The most useful and the most promising vehicle systems are those which utilize, in the most direct manner, human capabilities. The equipment which maintains a habitable environment for the human operator while accomplishing his task and the equipment which provides the means of performing the tasks are considered to constitute a vehicle system.
A detailed theoretical study on construction of specific space systems for remote landing does not seem to be warranted until simulation is available to confirm the analysis. Thus, development of a simulator with this capability is essentlal. Recognizing this, the Georgia Division of Lockheed has established some broad requirements for space systems and is using them to study and establish simulator requirements and concepts.
A general description of one type of vehicle system that might be used for remote handling in space is presented to illustrate how simulation of such a system might be accomplished. A typical sequence of tasks to be accomplished in space station assembly might be:
a. Secure components to prevent drift.
b. Locate specific component package.
c. Restrain component and move to assembly area.
d. Remove protective covers and prepare for assembly.
e. lndex components to be assembled.
f. Hold indexed components during attaching act—such as bolting, riveting, or welding.
g. Seal and make wiring and plumbing

Once the primary need and mission of such a vehicle system is established, secondary applications should be studied. Such applications for a space station assembly and maintenance vehicle system might be:
a. Recovery of payloads boosted to the vicinity of a space station
b. Transfer of personnel or cargo between space stations
c. Emergency escape
d. Satellite inspection
Studies and reports made by Lockheed-Georgia Division indicate that the best vehicle systems will probably result from a philosophy which minimizes vehicle mass. Due to the environment and basic physical relations, it seems unlikely that any "Sunday Funny" type space suit will be practical. Thrust nozzles will be fixed to a rigid frame and have some degree of automatic control. Such a system requires fuel for accelerating and then decelerating. If the vehicle mass becomes excessive, the amount of fuel required becomes large and aggravates the situation. By assuring that research and test equipment is designed into the space stations rather than into these utility vehicle systems, a lightweight vehicle system should evolve. Examples of such systems are shown in figures 1, 2. and 3. These concepts are described in refs. 1 and 2.

By means of curtains, lights, and projectors the external visual environment can be simulated.  
A combination of insulation and recordings can provide the proper aural environment.
This simulator would permit development of remote-handling systems and design of space equipment which would be tested prior to launch. Training of operators for the vehicle systems and handling equipment should be invaluable as training of operators for hot laboratory manipulators now is.
In summary, the best remote-handling space system should result from the proper matching of the operator and equipment. One of the best means of achieving this matching is by simulation. Such simulation can hardly be postponed further since the results of studies would be invaluable in designing the first space systems requiring handling, assembly or repair operations, and in training the men who will operate them in space.
1. Space Station Assembly and maintenance. ER 3469, Lockheed Aircraft Corporation.
2. Space Suit Design Study, ETP 186, Lockheed Aircraft Corporation-Georgia Division,
3. An Advanced Slight Simulator, ETP 152, Lockheed Aircraft Corporation- Georgia Division, Marietta, Georga, March 1959.

Source: "Survey of Remote Handling in Space", D. Frederick Baker,  USAF, 1962

See other early Manned Space Manipulators and Teleoperators here.

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