Posts Tagged ‘Cybernetic Turtle’

1959 – Sverdlovsk Cybernetic Tortoise – (Soviet)

English text translated from the original German: (for pictures and diagrams, see pdf below)

The Cybernetic Model "Tortoise"
Cybernetics – In recent years, a new science was born. It enables machines to replace with highly skilled human labor, eg by electronic calculators. These machines are very complicated in structure, and only specialists with high qualifications to deal with them properly.
To the study of cybernetics are very well cybernetic models with information stores, which the animal brain can exert partial analog functions. One such model is the "turtle" developed by the Institute of Automation and robot of the Academy of Sciences of the USSR. Publication of its construction in the magazines "knowledge is power" and "Radio" No. 3/1958 encouraged the study groups for robot and automatic Young engineer at the stations in Sverdlovsk region at this, even to make such a model.
Figure 11
View of the model
The present article is roughly the construction of such a "turtle" described, it is very easy as standardized components can be used.
The main task of this model is to help the students of the upper classes while the basics of automation and cybernetics studieren.1
The behavior of the "turtle"
Observed the movements of the "turtle" obstacles creates the impression that they possess animal-related reflections. Reacts to light you on audio signals and also bumping into.. Though primitive, but it has an organ of sight, hearing a , a sense of touch and memory (memory with a conditioned reflex can be briefly formed).
Here is the proof of their sensitivity to light., The "turtle" moves in a circle on their base until they discovered the source of light is the light beam detected, it moves straight to the lamp to the visual system consists of a photoresistor This photo resistor switched on.. light on the relay d 1 the control magnet (Part VII) from, so that the move can "turtle" straight. Here comes the "turtle" an obstacle, they returned a short run to move again after a little sideways rotation forward. This process is repeated as many times until a way is found to get around the obstacle.
Audio signals to the "turtle" reacts in the following way: If a whistle is given, it will stop for about a second.
The interesting thing about the "turtle" but their "memory", which is the formation of a conditioned reflex of importance. A conditioned reflex occurs whenever different, but at least two stimuli are combined. For the "turtle" the combination of sound and shock stimuli was chosen. Exceeds the "turtle" an obstacle and at the same moment you will hear a whistle, the result is a conditioned reflex. Now "suspects" the "turtle" at every whistle a
1 The "Turtle" is a principled solution for a cybernetic model that responds to three stimuli and can emerge a "conditioned reflex". There are of course also other variants, you can work with transistors that use other relays and also make the program more extensive. However, this model is to encourage the work of communities of our country to deal with such problems and also to develop new technical solutions in creative work.
Obstacle and executes the corresponding movements to bypass the obstruction. After a certain time (this time is determined by the corresponding timer) goes out of the conditioned reflex again, if not both stimuli occur simultaneously again.
Cybernetic models have generally fulfill an experimental feature. With them it is possible to simulate individual processes of the nervous activity of the living organism. Analogies are derived from the behavior of living organisms and machines for the development of automatic information processing systems is of utmost importance. This makes it possible logical actions performed by the person on the basis of information to transmit cybernetic machines or mechanisms. This has great significance for the growth of labor productivity. The introduction of automatic regulation and control in the production always leads to a significant acceleration of production and to increase the quality. Automated systems and aggregates react precisely, not tired and are less sluggish than man.
The circuit of the "turtle"
In the overall structure and the "turtle" there were the following problems to solve:
1 Recording the information (light, sound, shock). Forward to a computing element and storing the information in the formation of the conditioned reflex.
2 Realization of the output information by movement of the drive and control mechanisms. To achieve these objects both electronic and electro-mechanical units are required.
The schematic diagram (Fig. 12) shows the circuitry recording, processing and transformation of information into control operations. For a better overview, the individual units were included only in the block.
Part I
As a photo sensor resistor is used. It is also a photocell or a photo element to use, but then an electronic amplifier is required. The potentiometer 1M ohms lin is used to control the sensitivity of the photoresistor. The sensitivity
11 part
As a simple two-pole contact feeler is used. By the contact of the circuit of the left coil of the relay d 2 is closed when pushed. This is triggered by relay d 4 and d 5, the backward and sideways movement. The timer IV (Z 1) finished the operation after a short time.
Figure 13
The photoresistor circuit for Part I
24V Figure 14
Circuit of the touch probe for Part II
Figure 12 a schematic diagram for the technical operation of the turtle
Part III
As a probe microphone (single crystal microphone) is used. A two-stage amplifier where the incoming audio signal is enhanced in that a rectifier bridge in the left coil of the relay 3 d, a corresponding current flows. It is recommended that the sound frequency of the amplifier set so that only signals of a particular frequency will be processed in order to avoid interference from external noise.
Figure 12b with this circuit for the relay d 1 and d 4 maneuverability at around obstacles can be increased
is set so that the photo-resistor is not responding to diffuse light. For this reason, the use of a simple lens (Fig. 18) is very convenient.

Figure 15 circuit of the microphone amplifier for Part III (the tubes correspond about our EF 14)
When switching the relay relay d 3 d 6 is turned on and brought the turtle briefly to a halt. The duration of this operation is controlled by the second timing element (Z 2).
Part IV
The two timing elements Z 1 and Z 2 have a memory function. The incoming signal triggers an operation and will be for a short time (the duration is determined by the combination of C 2, R 6 set) is stored. No signal, the circuit for both windings of the relay d 2 and d 3, and C 2 is interrupted current. If a signal that flows in the left-hand winding of the relay power d 2 or d 3, and switched by the relay. Here, C 2 invites to over R 6 and the glow lamp ignites. Thus, the circuit of the right coil of the relay is closed briefly and the process ends. The circuit is therefore only briefly closed because it is unloaded immediately after switching the capacitor C through R 1 second For this circuit polarized relays are provided with zero position. However, it can be used with two windings, simple relays, however, the circuit has to be changed.
Figure 16
Circuit of the timers (Z 1, Z 2) of Part IV
Part V
The timer Z 3 is required to form the "conditioned reflex." If simultaneously on II and III, a signal, then the relay d 4 and d 6 set the grid of the tube for a short time to ground and discharging the capacitor C 10 . makes the anode current and the relay d 7 increases attracts. According to charging of C 10 drops in the tube again, the anode current., the time for charging of C 10 corresponds to the duration of the "conditioned reflex" (for the present model were about two minutes selected).
Figure 17
Circuit for the timer Z 3 in Part V
Part VI
As a drive motor an electric motor is used 24 V with the field winding. Ports 1 and 2 are for the field winding and are used to change the direction of rotation by the relay d 5 reversed. Via the terminals 3 and 4, the armature of the motor is fed.
By Relais d 6 is the exchange Contact 6b in a sound, the power supply is interrupted to the collector and the model stopped for a short time. The speed should be about 5 to 10 cm / s. With appropriate variation of the circuit can be used also a Permamotor.
Part VII
This part constitutes an electromagnet by means of which the circular motion of "tortoise" is controlled. Smaller no light on the photoconductor, then the circuit of the electromagnet is closed. This
Figure 18 look for the photo resistor
Figure 18a The turtle Elsie
On the shell of the turtle a candle (1) had been secured, a second candle (2) was placed at some distance. Between the candle and the turtle was a barrier (3). The shutter of the camera was opened and the turtle was left to itself. Your path is recorded in the photo. (4) starting position of the turtle (it starts moving toward the light source). (5) collision with the obstacle. (6), bypassing the restoration of the obstacle and movement direction of the light source. (7) The turtle happened to approach very close to the candle, the light was quite strong, the turtle was forced to retreat, they bypassed the candle. (From: IA Poletayev: Cybernetics German VEB Verlag der Wissenschaften, Berlin 1962, page 233.)
Figure 19 Base plate with drive and control
is given to the steering wheel, a rash of 20 °. In light relay drops d 1, and the steering wheel gets a straight-ahead position.
The mechanical structure
The "turtle" has an oval shape and the drive control is initially in the size of 220 mm X 290 mm. Built on the base plate. Assembly of electronic equipment should be done only when the drive and control function properly.
The chassis is composed of three rubber wheels, the diameter should be about 50 to 60 mm.
The Figure 19 shows the basic mechanical structure of the drive and the controller. For driving a double worm reducer was chosen because it allows the use of small gears. The arrangement of the worm gears and is shown in Figures 20 and 21.
Figure 20 Cross-section A A
Figure 21 section B B
7 [28004]
At the intended speed of 50 to 100 mm / s and the given wheel diameter, the rotational speed of the drive shaft does not exceed 20 to 30 U / min. In the example used with 32 and 24 teeth for a motor with 6000 to 8000 r / min and two common worm gears. If other wheels or a different motor is used, the reduction must be recalculated.
Greater friction loss can be avoided if only one wheel is rigidly connected to the drive shaft.
Figure 22 Cross-section C C
The principle of the magnetic control is seen in Figure 19 and 22. The steering wheel is located in a fork, in which a lever is attached. On this lever is effected by the solenoid, the spring, or a control stop. The stop control should be about 20 ° when the electromagnet. The steering wheel by the coil spring is held in the normal position.
Freely edited by a methodical instructions of the station Young Engineers in Sverdlovsk, published in 1959.

 See pdf of referenced chapter here

Sverdlovsk, name of the city of Yekaterinburg, Russia, from 1924 to 1991
Sverdlovsk, Ukraine, a town in Ukraine.

I suspect this Tortoise is from the Russian Sverdlovsk, not the Ukraine.


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1970 – Cybernetic Tortoise Model – (Russian)

See full pdf article from the Russian magazine Radio September 1970 here.

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1969 – Cybernetic Tortoise (Russian)

  pdf of Cybernetic Tortoise (in Russian).

If anyone can offer more information on this model, they can contact me on reubenh at cyberneticzoo dot com .

Unfortunately this blog software cannot support the Russian language set as well as others that I use.

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1965 – Cybernetic Tortoise – (Russian)

Простая кибернетика
Автор:Е. Копытов, В. Салов, Т. Шорикова
Название:Простая кибернетика
Издательство:Молодая гвардия
Simple cybernetics
Author: E. Kopytov, V. Salov, T. Shorikova
Title: A simple cybernetics
Publisher: Young Guard
Year: 1965

Thanks to Waldemar Dekański  from Poland for locating the source for this Cybernetic Tortoise.

Original Russian text originally used found here.


Pioneer in the practical conduct simulating living creatures is rightly considered to be English neurophysiology Walter Gray.  His model "Turtle" can develop a "conditional reflex".  It is so designed that, natalkivayas the obstacle, turns back.  At the moment of collision with the barrier it is dealt whistle.  So is repeated several times, after which the "bug" "learn to" turn back on the whistles, not yet touching obstacles.  Whistle indicates "Turtle" the obstacle, sends it to the subject, signals about it.  And in this case as the object of action is not himself a whistle and another object – obstacle from the meeting which evaded the bug and the existence of which said a whistle and so.  Besides it is worth mentioning the work of Berkeley with his "protein" "Turtles" Ashby.  And below the domestic model.

 This cyber toy feeds from three batteries for a pocket lamp, this kit is enough for three hours of continuous work.  "Turtle" perform the following operations: at power operates the leading engine, and it goes straight ahead; if his motion "turtle" impact on the barrier, it departs ago, and at the same time included a second engine, which makes her turn away from obstacles.  When the light hit in the right eye "Turtle" on the right turns, and if zasvete left eye – the left, that is, it always strives to light.  If the toy "hears" loud sound, it "frightening" and stops for a few seconds and then goes forward.
 "Turtle" able to make a conditional reflex.  To this end, in its collision with the barrier must file a whistle, then the model as a mechanism to remember that meets obstacle on the road after the warning whistle, and the next whistle "turtle" has not stopped, but down from an imaginary obstacles.
 "Turtle" gathered at the transistors and miniature relay DC-type "RES-10" and "RES-12" and consists of multiple nodes: node sound management of the leading hub motor, motor control lamps, as well as lighting and "memory".
 The most difficult knot is sound, which consists of two parts: the actual sound of electronic relays and relay time defining the stop "turtle".  Audible relay (Fig. 67) collected on four types of transistors.  P14 and works as follows: signals from the microphone comes on the first cascade amplifier voltage

Fig.  67. Scheme sound node "turtle".

sound frequencies.  He assembled the regular pattern with earthing emitter.
 Enhanced signals received on the next cascade, made on transistors T2.  In this chain collector cascade included resonant circuit, made up of inductance and condenser C3.  This contour is set to 800 Hz frequency, thus strengthening the cascade will be greatest at frequencies 600 – 1000 Hz.  This is necessary in order to "turtle" is not responsive to their own noises, the frequency of which lies within the 50 – 200 Hz.
 Last cascade enhance voltage transistors assembled at T3.  As a collector of the transistor included output transformer primary winding which is also set to the frequency of 800 Hz through the condenser C5.  Various strain, was withdrawn from the secondary winding transformer, rectifier straighten mostikovym gathered at the semiconductor diodes.
 Straightening the stress in negative polarity

Fig. 68.
 come to the base transistor T4, in the collector circuit which included an executive relay.  With the growing negative building at the base of the transistor collector current of his sharply increasing, and the relay is triggered.  Contacts K1 lead into effect transistor relay time, collected at the transistors T5 and T6 (Fig. 68).  Time relays is a dvuhkaskadny DC amplifier transistors to direct and reverse reducibility with great gain.
 The base of the first cascade is connected with less power source through R – S-chain.  When the capacitor C6 discharged, based transistor T5 no bias voltage and current collector small.  Short-circuiting the capacitor nakorotko S6 contacts K1a by an increase in the relay P1 causes collector current first cascade.  This increase, in turn, causes actuation relay included in the second collector transistor.  Contacts relay R4 will remain closed until the condenser is not épuisées through resistance R9 and base-station emitter first cascade.  Time excerpts depends on the size of the condenser S6, R9 resistance coefficient and strengthen the application of transistors.
 Relays P4 has two pairs of contacts: a pair of normally closed, while another – open.  Normally closed contacts K 4 and include the food chain motors, and normally open contacts K4b work in a logical pattern Matches "I", with contacts K3 including "memory" "turtle".  Thus, when the whistles "turtle" stops for a few seconds.
 The collision with an obstacle contacts K11 work related to the buffers.  They zakorachivayut capacitor C7 and thus include relay time performance on transistors T7 and T8.  The work of this scheme is similar to the above, and requires no explanation.  In collector transistor T8 included two electromechanical relays: R2 and R3.  Relays R2 reversiruet leading and turning engines – "turtle" moves back and turns aside.  Turn happens to read, with more talk through the course of turning motor does not go as a diode D1 is included in the shut-off area.  In operation relay R2 polarity supply voltage is changing the engine and a diode D1 conducts current.  Turning engine begins to rotate and tougher moves associated with its axis.  Tougher leverage through the system turns the front wheels.  At the end of the course cams installed hard contact K9, which disables the engine of food.  The steering mechanism has three such sustained contact, two of which (K9 and K10) placed in extreme positions cams and an average (K8), when the "turtle" goes straight.  Once R2 Cup relay anchor, polarity supply voltage engine change again, and will talk at a price: D2 diode – a vicious contact K 8 – turning motor PM.  until tougher than razomknet contact K8. relays R3 works in a logical pattern Matches "I" to include electronic "memory".
 "Memory" "turtle" is a time electronic relay, which is designed for 40-60 seconds.  It is triggered only when the collision with a barrier and sound (Postal) occur simultaneously, that is, when contacts and K3 and K.4 b. both trapped and zakorachivayut capacitor C5. Relays R6 contacts K6, blocking the food chain engines.  Now when filing whistle "tortoise" will not stop and go back, as well as relay R2 and R3 work through contacts K4a and blocked food motors.
 In light of "turtle" responds through fotosoprotiv flax, which are connected to amplifiers DC on transistors T11 and T12.  In publicizing fotosoprotivle bright light of the negative potential on the basis of one or another transistor increases, causing alarm relay R5 or P7.  Contacts relay P7 included parallel contacts K8, that is hard to contact the steering mechanism, and with the closure of "turtle" starts to move left.  In operation R5 is changing polarity of the supply steering motor, diode D, conducts current forward, and "turtle" is moving right.  "Turtle" mounted on the chassis elliptical shape h180h3 size of 240 mm.  Placement of motors, batteries, food, engines and electronic blocks illustrated 69, 70, 71.
 As a drive DC motors used type DIP-1, which consume little power and expanded force, sufficient for the traffic of toys and turning it.  Leading motor rotation of the wheel passes through the worm gearbox with 1:30 slowdown, worm gear has a direct adhesion wheel.  It should be noted that mechanical work must be implemented very carefully:

Fig.  69. "Turtle" withdrawn from "shell" (seen from left).

Transfer of engines should easily rotate and does not have a play, it is desirable to strengthen the wheel of miniature bearings, etc.
 Transistors T6, T8, T10-reverse conductivity, or P101 type P8, the rest-type P13 or P14. Tranzistory matched with a small initial shock collector and increased at least 20.  Resistance and capacitors – small. Relays P7 and R3 – miniature, type RES-9, relays R2, R5 and R6 – the type RES-9, a relay R1-type RES-10.
 All relays are subject to modifications: attenuated spring, approaching contacts in order to reduce the current operation and lower supply voltage.  Following changes in the current operation is reduced 2.5 times.  The operation also need to produce with sufficient thoroughness and accuracy.  To eliminate interference from the sound of engines

 Fig.  70. "Turtle" withdrawn from "shell" (seen from right).
 node feeds from three successive included battery type "D-0, 06".  These batteries are placed in makeshift cassette with the findings for recharging.

 Fig.  71. "Turtle" withdrawn from "shell" (rear view).  Electrolytic capacitors must be matched with a small current leakage.  Microphone – primers such as "DEMSH".  The transformer has a core section 1 cm 2.  Figures its winding: primary – 500 turns of PE-0, 1; secondary – 150 turns of PE-0, 18.
 Forging "turtle" beginning with the sound settings hub.  Connect food and to give input signal from the sound generator with a frequency of 900 Hz and amplitude of 5 mv.  Selection of tanks and S3 capacitors C5 seeking operation relay at this frequency.  If the release occurs when the signal more than 15 mv, transistors should be applied with great gain.

 Fig.  72. A general view of "turtle".  Then proceed to build a relay time for transistors T5 and T6.  To do so closes S6 nakorotko capacitor, a collector in the chain consistently with relay
 include milliampermetr.  With the closure of S6 current collector rises to 20-25 May and then gradually reduced to 1-3 May.  If the value of current with the full discharge condenser will be more May 5, it should change the transistor T5 to another, less current primary collector, or choose an electrolytic capacitor with a small diversion.  Time stops "turtle" regulated resistance R9 and is 4-5 seconds.  The remaining relay time regulated the same way. Fotorele do not need to adjust, need only use transistors with a relatively high gain.

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1964 – Cybernetique Tortue (Cybernetic Tortoise) – Armand Delsemme (Belgian)


Les amateurs de « zoologie » électronique sont aujourd'hui légion. Ici, une « tortue » réalisée par le chercheur belge André[sic] Delsemme et qui, comme ses consoeurs, est capable d'apprentissage (arch. ph. Boulanger/Ministère de l'Éducation nationale — Service Cinématographique, Bruxelles).

English Translation

The amateurs of electronic “zoology” are now legion. Here, a “cybernetic tortoise” made by the Belgian researcher André[sic] Delsemme and who, like his colleagues, is capable of learning (arch. ph. Boulanger / Ministry of Education – Film Service, Brussels).

Thanks to my  friend Paul-Alain Amouriq for this picture.

[Aug 2015: Ed. Although the article refers to André Delsemme, it has been suggested by some that it should have referred to Armand Delsemme, the noted Belgian research scientist . The original image appeared in an article by Georges R. Boulanger c1968.]

English translation:

Cybernetics is a Belgian short documentary of 27 minutes, directed by Jean-Marie Piquint in 1964. Cybernetics, its principles and its first applications presented from the perspective of a third industrial revolution with robotics. The film presents and demonstrates, among other things, the principles of William Ross Ashby homeostat and electronic tortoise Armand Delsemme (sometimes erroneously named André Delsemme) in the offspring of William Grey Walter works whose creations called Bristol turtle signed the beginnings of robotics. Production and realization: Jean-Marie Piquint. Comments by Richard Muller said. Scientific Advisor: R. Georges Boulanger. Black and white real views Gevaert filtered Gevacolor color. Jean Coignon animated diagrams. Collection of the film library of the Ministry of the French Community of Belgium. Primo Premio Assoluto: International Science Film Festival in Vicenza (1965). Special Award: Industrial International Film Festival in Rouen (1965). Special mention for color processing: International Festival of Barcelona (1965).

Source: here.

See all the early Cybernetic Animals here.

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