Posts Tagged ‘CAMs’

1978 – ARMS 1 – Oceaneering (American)

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1978 – ARMS 1 (Atmospheric Roving Manipulator System)

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As early as 1971, Dr. Norman H. Wood, program engineer for General Electric's Cybernetic Automation & Mechanization Systems Section, described a new underwater manipulator system devised for use on a multi-well submerged platform. GE's activities in manipulators date back to the company's nuclear power development and space projects. It was a development based on the G.E. Model M-2 Manipulator Arm.

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In 1974, Oceaneering International, Inc., of Houston started developing a 3,000 ft. two-man diving bell jointly developed by Perry Oceanographies, General Electric Company and Oceaneering themselves. Called the Atmospheric Roving Manipulator System (ARMS), which would use an advanced capability force-feedback manipulator featuring a seven function master arm inside a manned submersible and a slave working arm outside that provides “feel” to the operator, from the Re-entry & Environmental Systems Div., General Electric Co., Philadelphia. GE reports "With the G.E. underwater force-feedback manipulator, the operator no longer has to rely on the sometimes difficult decision making processes".

G.E. call their system the Diver Equivalent Manipulator System (DEMS), which can be operated from the inside or from the surface. The arm reaches over 5 ft and can handle 65 lb with only 5 lb of operator hand pressure. This manipulator system has six degrees of freedom plus a grip. If the slave holds a 65 pound weight the operator "feels" a smaller, 5 pound weight (DEMS has 13:1 force ratio). By responding to the force feedback, the operator allows the manipulator to comply to external forces.

The bell is a 72" sphere, designed to accommodate two people, with an emergency support capability of up to five days.

The GE arm system has a reach of 1.6 metres, 29.5 kg rated load and operates to a depth of 1829 m.

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Oceaneering International took delivery on the Perry-built, one-atmosphere vehicle ARMS in late 1976 and was first demonstrated in March 1977.

In 1978, ARMS-I, mainly employed for deepwater drill rig support, was in service on the Ben Ocean Lancer drillship in the Gulf of Mexico.
In the 1980's, Oceaneering renamed ARMS and was now called Ocean-Arms Bells.

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GE'S UNDERWATER MANIPULATOR SHIPPED TO OCEANEERING
Having completed final testing, General Electric's underwater force feedback manipulator is ready to be mated with a 3000-ft (914 m) one-atmosphere diving bell being developed by Oceaneering International, Inc. The diving bell, designated Atmospheric Roving Manipulator System (ARMS), will undergo wet tests in early 1977 in Houston.
The master-slave manipulator is sized to handle a 65 lb (29.5 kg) load at full rated speeds, with a stall capacity of 100 lb (45 kg). The 6df slave has 5.5 ft (1.7 m) full extension to the ends of the universal stub fingers. The hand grip provides the seventh motion. The stub fingers are designed for quick interchange with tooling.
As the operator in the bell moves the terminus of the master, the slave located outside the bell follows at a one-to-one ratio in speed and angular displacement. As a force or an object is encountered by the slave, a portion of the torque generated in a joint is fed back to the master to produce a proportional torque in the corresponding master joint.
The hydraulically powered rotary actuators are arranged at each joint to simulate the human arm, with two wrist motions and a forearm rotation mutually orthogonal, an elbow joint and two shoulder motions, elevation and azimuth. The electrically powered master is a small replica of the slave, with a hand grip at its terminus.
The key elements of this system, a product of GE's Re-entry & Environmental Systems Division, are spatial correspondence and force feedback. The accurate and responsive spatial correspondence of the slave motion, or position, to the master provides precise control.
"ARMS' manipulator can start a nut, stab guidewires, turn valve handles or feel a gap, even in poor visibility or current motion," states Norman H. Wood, GE's Underwater Manipulator Program Manager. "It can locate, grasp, and perform tasks with pins, cables or other hardware in zero visibility," he continued, "an almost impossible task for a rate manipulator because it doesn't have a sense of feel."
The underwater force feedback manipulator is based on years of experience gained from GE's MAN-MATES Industrial Manipulators currently in use in forging operations, foundries and manufacturing facilities.

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The "Aluminaut" also employed G.E. force-feedback arms.


From: Phil Nuytten : Source: here.
To: personal_submersibles
Sent: Fri, Nov 18, 2011 4:46 pm
Subject: Re: [PSUBS-MAILIST] Anyone Know Tom Pado or Total Marine Technology?

All: Yup, I know Tom Pado – he used to work for us at Oceaneering International Inc. He and John Fike were the lead pilots on a series of 3,000 foot rated thruster/manipulator bells designed for offshore oil related work – the series was called 'Ocean Arms' and Perry built Arms 1 through 3, We built 'Arms 4' here in B.C. and it's still here – out in the boneyard. The thruster bells were really only a piloted delivery system for the G.E. force-feedback, spatially compliant manipulator arm. (O.I.I. owned all rights to the G.E. arm – the rights were purchased from General Electric – it was used in their 'Man-mate' program.) The G.E. arm was, in my opinion, the best manipulator arm ever made – right up to current time. Biggest problem was cost – about $250,000 per arm and controllers. I used this system many times and it was superb!
Phil


General Electric's Re-entry & Environmental Systems Division later became Western Space and Marine.


See other early Underwater Robots here.

See other G.E. CAMS here:

1956- GE Yes Man
1958-9- GE Handyman – Ralph Mosher
1969 – GE Walking Truck – Ralph Mosher
1965-71- GE Hardiman I
1969- GE Man-Mate Industrial manipulator

1973 – Under Sea Mobility – Ralph Mosher (American)

Underwater Army Bases and Depot (See Figure 51: Under Sea Mobility)
Recent marine biology and ocean engineering work have resulted in some startling underwater activity concepts and systems designs that promise to pave the way to a profitable exploitation of untapped water resources. It is not difficult to argue that before this decade has passed the Army, as well as the Navy, will be involved in exploiting and protecting our underwater territory.
Already, large oil companies are competing for underwater rights for oil well operations. The United States government is the guardian of this territory and has the specific operational guidelines. Petroleum industries are currently designing huge and complex underwater oil mining operations. The author predicts that some day in the near future they will operate their own underwater stations. There are obvious advantages to this foray into our underwater territory.
The petroleum industries have found that to operate these underwater complexes they need transportation and mobility. They have design vehicles that travel from the surface down to the site and are able to do work by means of underwater manipulators. It follows that a necessary and valuable tool for underwater work will be unusual vehicles that can provide the ability for man to work remotely as he would on earth directly. The illustration in Figure 51 of this unusual underwater vehicle is a concept that might not ever be realized. However, it is predicted that the elements of this concept, the legs, and the manipulator arms, and the man's ability to operate the vehicle from within, are concepts that will be used to provide the kind of functions illustrated.

From: Technical Report Number 11768, Applying Force Feedback Servomechanism Technology To Mobility Platforms, Ralph Mosher, 1973.


The earlier G.E. Pedipulator concept dates back to 1962-64.

Land-based concepts done 1962, test Pedipulator demonstrated in 1964. It was never completed as a proposal for a more useful quadruped was put forward and accepted (see here ).


See other early Underwater Robots here.

See other G.E. CAMS here:

1956- GE Yes Man
1958-9- GE Handyman – Ralph Mosher
1969 – GE Walking Truck – Ralph Mosher
1965-71- GE Hardiman I
1969- GE Man-Mate Industrial manipulator

1973 – Wheel Walker – Ralph Mosher (American)

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1973 – Wheel Walker – Ralph Mosher

Wheels Used as Legs
It is understood that many ideas have been presented that involve a combination of wheel actions such as rotation and orbiting. The idea shown in Figure 49 is different in that an immobilized wheel experiencing slipping and bulldozing will transfer its action from wheel rotate to straight-line rearward motion. The translation motion is not an orbiting or circular action. This concept is a direct outgrowth of the thinking involved in developing the walking vehicle. Although the stepping device involves wheels, it is truly a stepping device. The translation motion and the stepover motion of the second wheel act as a bipedal motion of one leg stepping over the other. The chassis of the vehicle is promoted forward just as the human body is through the pelvic action. It can be thought of as being similar to pole vaulting, one over the other. The concept does not depend on terrain shear strength in the Lateral direction. All that is required to make this concept work, in terrain properties, is adequate load bearing capacity.

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Figure 50 shows a schematic diagram of a linkage concept that could provide this translation and stepping motion for this dual wheel system. In this diagram, a multiplicity of circles represent the proposed action of the two wheels. The first wheel is shown in the forward position. It is proposed that encountered frontal resistance or wheel slippage will cause the wheel to travel rearward and slightly down. At the same time, the stepping action occurs with the second wheel. The relative positions of the two wheels are indicated by single and double numerical connotations. As an example, position 7 of the first wheel corresponds to position 77 of the second wheel. This diagram indicates start of motion with the highest digit first, so that motion of the first wheel is shown to start at position 7 and the motion of the second wheel starts from position 77 (and at the same time as the first wheel starts). Home positions are shown as number 1 and 11. Of course, this two wheel system would require two sets of the four-bar linkage system shown. The two pair of four-bar linkages would be interconnected to operate as complementary pairs with the motion of one four bar linkage depending on the other. A differential transmission would provide transition from wheel rotary motion to stepping action. The idea of the slight slope of the straight line motion is to provide automatic preference of wheel rotary action  compared to the stepping motion.
There are two key principles involved. One is the principle of stepping action and the second is the use of force reaction on the wheel to provide selectivity of the wheel rotary motion for the translate and step motion. It is beyond the scope of this report to analyze and design the complete system such as suggested by this concept. However the concept is outlined and it is suggested that at least some more thought be given to this idea to determine feasibility and practicability.

From Technical Report 11768 Applying Force Feedback Servomechanism Technology To Mobility Problems, US Army Tank-Automotive Command, 1973, by Ralph S. Mosher, Robotics Inc.


See other early Walking Wheels and Walking Machines here.

See other GE CAMS here:

1956- GE Yes Man
1958-9- GE Handyman – Ralph Mosher
1962 – GE Pedipulator – Ralph Mosher
1969 – GE Walking Truck – Ralph Mosher
1965-71- GE Hardiman I
1969- GE Man-Mate Industrial manipulator

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1965 – G.E. Lifting Boom – Edwin E Ziegler / Ralph Mosher (American)

Source: Popular Mechanics, Aug 1965.

Ralph Mosher bending over the Pedipulator. Possibly Ed Ziegler in the background.

G.E. Lifting Boom


Publication number US3333716 A
Publication date Aug 1, 1967
Filing date Dec 28, 1965
Inventor: Edwin E Ziegler
Original Assignee Gen Electric

ABSTRACT OF THE DISCLOSURE A material handling device having an extensible lifting boom carried by a hoist and carriage and controlled by a handle. The carriage is mounted for rotation about vertical pivots to accomplish azimuth rotation of the boom. The azimuth motor is located in the base of the hoist and the boom is pivoted in the carriage for vertical movement. A hydraulic cylinder mounted between the boom and carriage imparts vertical movement to the boom and an extensible cylinder causes the extensible boom to extend or retract. In each motion there is spatial correspondence between the control element and boom tip and also a diminished force is fed back by lever systems from the boom to the control handle to give feel.

My invention relates to a hydraulically operated boom. This invention relates particularly to a hydraulic boom having return feel and has correspondence of movement between a control handle and the boom in azimuth and elevation. The apparatus will be described particularly in relation to a boom but is understood to be equally adapted to remote control of devices such as guns, power shovels or any other extended member wherein the characteristics of this invention are important.

In the movements of objects, it is a common occurrence that one wishes to move an object under load. When one wishes to move some object against a force of some sort, it is advantageous to have a feel in the control handle or shaft which corresponds to the amount of force put forth in overcoming the resistance to such movement. It is further advantageous if there is a spatial correspondence between the control handle and the object being moved. If both feel and spatial correspondence are present in the apparatus, the operators situation is most analogous to his physically moving the load. In prior art machines where these characteristics are absent, the operator must spend time to learn a new set of relationships between movement and feel of the control handle and the movement of the load.

A chief object of the present invention is to provide a lifting boom having a return feel which is a small portion of the force being exerted and having a spatial correspondence between the boom and the control handle. With my invention, the operator can position the load with deftness and accuracy.

Another object of this invention is to provide a system adaptable to control any device pivoted for universal movement.

Another object is to provide a compact easily controllable system for hoisting loads wherein the operators control movements are the same as he would use in physically moving the load. Thus in an emergency the operators spontaneous reactions are most likely to be correct.

Another object of my invention is to provide a device capable of doing the work of one or more men with corresponding less work and fatigue to the operator.

Another object of this invention is to provide a single control element or actuator for operating a plurality of operating motors in conjunction to accomplish the single purpose of moving an object about a pivot.

These and other objects will be more readily perceived from my description which follows.

Briefly stated, my invention is a control device which operates to move any extended member about a pivot in azimuth or vertically and to change the length of the extended member. The movements of the extended member correspond in direction to the movements of the single control member. In addition, some of the force applied to the extended member is fed to the control member to give it feel. Thus the extended member moves in the direction of motion of the control member and some of the force applied to the extended member is fed to the control member. In this way the operator will know the direction of motion of the extended member and will have an idea of the amount of force being applied to the extended member.


Mosher’s future concepts of his CAMS concept included options for the Boom.


See other GE CAMS here:

GE yes man robot life28may56p125 x80 1969   GE Walking Truck   Ralph Mosher (American)1956- GE Yes Man
Mosher ge handyman Hula x80 1969   GE Walking Truck   Ralph Mosher (American)1958-9- GE Handyman – Ralph Mosher
Pedipulator  Walker S MFeb63 x80 1969   GE Walking Truck   Ralph Mosher (American)1962 – GE Pedipulator – Ralph Mosher
GE Walking Truck Mosher x80 Early Teleoperators, Exoskeletons and Industrial Robots1969 – GE Walking Truck – Ralph Mosher
Man Mate PopSciDec1969 x80 1969   GE Walking Truck   Ralph Mosher (American)1969- GE Man-Mate Industrial manipulator

See other early Teleoperators here.


 

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1962-64 – GE Pedipulator – Ralph Mosher (American)

Concepts done 1962, test Pedipulator demonstrated in 1964. It was never completed as a poposal for a more useful quadruped was put forward and accepted (see here ).

See Popular Mechanics Oct 1965 article here (pdf).

See video clip of Pedipulator here. The Gaumont video site is a pain to use. One must be registered (free). There is an English version. One registered (it can take a while to get confirmation email), log in, then enter "1966 22 31 NU" in the REFERENCE search field.

Update: one of my commenters reminds me that there is an easier to use film clip on British Pathe here.

WALKING MACHINE IN U.S.A.

see Mechanix Illustrated Sept 1964 article here (pdf).


The below images show a train of pedipulators connected together. This is probably the first as a concept for the "Iron Mule Train" based on biped walkers.


Russian concept circa 1974 for Pedipulator. Note the heavy use of 'mind control' i.e. bio-feedback.  I like the way it portrays the picking of delicate flowers, then stomps over the plants that had them.


See other GE CAMS here:

1956- GE Yes Man
1958-9- GE Handyman – Ralph Mosher
1969 – GE Walking Truck – Ralph Mosher
1965-71- GE Hardiman I
1969- GE Man-Mate Industrial manipulator