Posts Tagged ‘CAM’

1973 – Wheel Walker – Ralph Mosher (American)


1973 – Wheel Walker – Ralph Mosher

Wheels Used as Legs
It is understood that many ideas have been presented that involve a combination of wheel actions such as rotation and orbiting. The idea shown in Figure 49 is different in that an immobilized wheel experiencing slipping and bulldozing will transfer its action from wheel rotate to straight-line rearward motion. The translation motion is not an orbiting or circular action. This concept is a direct outgrowth of the thinking involved in developing the walking vehicle. Although the stepping device involves wheels, it is truly a stepping device. The translation motion and the stepover motion of the second wheel act as a bipedal motion of one leg stepping over the other. The chassis of the vehicle is promoted forward just as the human body is through the pelvic action. It can be thought of as being similar to pole vaulting, one over the other. The concept does not depend on terrain shear strength in the Lateral direction. All that is required to make this concept work, in terrain properties, is adequate load bearing capacity.

Figure 50 shows a schematic diagram of a linkage concept that could provide this translation and stepping motion for this dual wheel system. In this diagram, a multiplicity of circles represent the proposed action of the two wheels. The first wheel is shown in the forward position. It is proposed that encountered frontal resistance or wheel slippage will cause the wheel to travel rearward and slightly down. At the same time, the stepping action occurs with the second wheel. The relative positions of the two wheels are indicated by single and double numerical connotations. As an example, position 7 of the first wheel corresponds to position 77 of the second wheel. This diagram indicates start of motion with the highest digit first, so that motion of the first wheel is shown to start at position 7 and the motion of the second wheel starts from position 77 (and at the same time as the first wheel starts). Home positions are shown as number 1 and 11. Of course, this two wheel system would require two sets of the four-bar linkage system shown. The two pair of four-bar linkages would be interconnected to operate as complementary pairs with the motion of one four bar linkage depending on the other. A differential transmission would provide transition from wheel rotary motion to stepping action. The idea of the slight slope of the straight line motion is to provide automatic preference of wheel rotary action  compared to the stepping motion.
There are two key principles involved. One is the principle of stepping action and the second is the use of force reaction on the wheel to provide selectivity of the wheel rotary motion for the translate and step motion. It is beyond the scope of this report to analyze and design the complete system such as suggested by this concept. However the concept is outlined and it is suggested that at least some more thought be given to this idea to determine feasibility and practicability.

From Technical Report 11768 Applying Force Feedback Servomechanism Technology To Mobility Problems, US Army Tank-Automotive Command, 1973, by Ralph S. Mosher, Robotics Inc.

See other early Walking Wheels and Walking Machines here.

See other GE CAMS here:

1956- GE Yes Man
1958-9- GE Handyman – Ralph Mosher
1962 – GE Pedipulator – Ralph Mosher
1969 – GE Walking Truck – Ralph Mosher
1965-71- GE Hardiman I
1969- GE Man-Mate Industrial manipulator

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1965 – G.E. Lifting Boom – Edwin E Ziegler / Ralph Mosher (American)

Source: Popular Mechanics, Aug 1965.

Ralph Mosher bending over the Pedipulator. Possibly Ed Ziegler in the background.

G.E. Lifting Boom

Publication number US3333716 A
Publication date Aug 1, 1967
Filing date Dec 28, 1965
Inventor: Edwin E Ziegler
Original Assignee Gen Electric

ABSTRACT OF THE DISCLOSURE A material handling device having an extensible lifting boom carried by a hoist and carriage and controlled by a handle. The carriage is mounted for rotation about vertical pivots to accomplish azimuth rotation of the boom. The azimuth motor is located in the base of the hoist and the boom is pivoted in the carriage for vertical movement. A hydraulic cylinder mounted between the boom and carriage imparts vertical movement to the boom and an extensible cylinder causes the extensible boom to extend or retract. In each motion there is spatial correspondence between the control element and boom tip and also a diminished force is fed back by lever systems from the boom to the control handle to give feel.

My invention relates to a hydraulically operated boom. This invention relates particularly to a hydraulic boom having return feel and has correspondence of movement between a control handle and the boom in azimuth and elevation. The apparatus will be described particularly in relation to a boom but is understood to be equally adapted to remote control of devices such as guns, power shovels or any other extended member wherein the characteristics of this invention are important.

In the movements of objects, it is a common occurrence that one wishes to move an object under load. When one wishes to move some object against a force of some sort, it is advantageous to have a feel in the control handle or shaft which corresponds to the amount of force put forth in overcoming the resistance to such movement. It is further advantageous if there is a spatial correspondence between the control handle and the object being moved. If both feel and spatial correspondence are present in the apparatus, the operators situation is most analogous to his physically moving the load. In prior art machines where these characteristics are absent, the operator must spend time to learn a new set of relationships between movement and feel of the control handle and the movement of the load.

A chief object of the present invention is to provide a lifting boom having a return feel which is a small portion of the force being exerted and having a spatial correspondence between the boom and the control handle. With my invention, the operator can position the load with deftness and accuracy.

Another object of this invention is to provide a system adaptable to control any device pivoted for universal movement.

Another object is to provide a compact easily controllable system for hoisting loads wherein the operators control movements are the same as he would use in physically moving the load. Thus in an emergency the operators spontaneous reactions are most likely to be correct.

Another object of my invention is to provide a device capable of doing the work of one or more men with corresponding less work and fatigue to the operator.

Another object of this invention is to provide a single control element or actuator for operating a plurality of operating motors in conjunction to accomplish the single purpose of moving an object about a pivot.

These and other objects will be more readily perceived from my description which follows.

Briefly stated, my invention is a control device which operates to move any extended member about a pivot in azimuth or vertically and to change the length of the extended member. The movements of the extended member correspond in direction to the movements of the single control member. In addition, some of the force applied to the extended member is fed to the control member to give it feel. Thus the extended member moves in the direction of motion of the control member and some of the force applied to the extended member is fed to the control member. In this way the operator will know the direction of motion of the extended member and will have an idea of the amount of force being applied to the extended member.

Mosher’s future concepts of his CAMS concept included options for the Boom.

See other GE CAMS here:

GE yes man robot life28may56p125 x80 1969   GE Walking Truck   Ralph Mosher (American)1956- GE Yes Man
Mosher ge handyman Hula x80 1969   GE Walking Truck   Ralph Mosher (American)1958-9- GE Handyman – Ralph Mosher
Pedipulator  Walker S MFeb63 x80 1969   GE Walking Truck   Ralph Mosher (American)1962 – GE Pedipulator – Ralph Mosher
GE Walking Truck Mosher x80 Early Teleoperators, Exoskeletons and Industrial Robots1969 – GE Walking Truck – Ralph Mosher
Man Mate PopSciDec1969 x80 1969   GE Walking Truck   Ralph Mosher (American)1969- GE Man-Mate Industrial manipulator

See other early Teleoperators here.


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1969 – GE Walking Truck – Ralph Mosher (American)


The Times Record – 24 July 1962 p13

From as early as 1962, the General Electric Ordinance Dept. in Pittsfield, Mass., undertook a study for the US Army which may lead to the building of a manned walking machine, with arms and legs, ….. where tractors might get stuck.

The mechanism for which the Boston Ordinance District has awarded a study contract, would be called a "pedipulator." It would be designed for rough or muddy terrain and its 12-foot legs would hike at 35-mile speed.

The human operator, who would be coupled directly to the mechanism, would walk inside the big machine and the 12-foot legs would take the same steps. The arms of the machine would follow the movements of the operator's arms.

Two or three machines might be lined up like men carrying a stretcher, or a litter, and thus transport equipment or men. The body of the pedipulator would be big enough to hold, besides the operator, electronic circuits, servo units and power drives.

An important element is making the human operator comfortable during extended periods and this will involve human-factor research.

By mid 1965, impressed by the results of the 'pedipulator", the Department of Defense and the Army Tank and Automotive Center asked GE to turn-out a semi-amphibious four-legged, cargo-carrying CAM (Cybernetic Anthropomorphous Machine). It was unveiled to the public in April 1969.

I've just loaded up a compiled video clip sourced from some vintage material I have. See youtube here.

Wooden Mock-ups

Earlier concept drawings had the operator mounted forward, not middle.

The Walking Truck partially constructed.

Left-leg raised.

Towards the end, now being tested outdoors, the "truck" now sports stabilizing bars in case of a fall or loss of balance.  The rate and volume of hydraulic oil (50 gallons per minute) requires external hook-up.

Above image from US Army Museum site here.

The GE Walking Truck currently resides at the US Army Transportation Museum at Fort Eustis. (picture from flickr – author?).

The CAM legs as adapted to a tank.

Meccano model by Hugh Henry described by Tony Brown.

For a complete set of images see the NZ Meccano web site here.  Thanks Antonio Gual for encouraging  Tony Brown (the author of the Modelplan) who found some pictures of Hugh Henry's original.

Charlie Harper artwork.

See other GE CAMS here:

1956- GE Yes Man
1958-9- GE Handyman – Ralph Mosher
1962 – GE Pedipulator – Ralph Mosher
1965-71- GE Hardiman I
1969- GE Man-Mate Industrial manipulator