Posts Tagged ‘British’

1897 – Diving Apparatus – John and George Day (British)

day dive suit pat suit 1897   Diving Apparatus   John and George Day (British)

1897 – Diving Apparatus – John and George Day. Little is known about the Day brothers. It is not currently known if the suit was built.

day dive suit pat suit side 1897   Diving Apparatus   John and George Day (British)

Images from the British patent GB189707105A.

day dive suit pat claw 1897   Diving Apparatus   John and George Day (British)

Publication number US609418 A
Publication date Aug 23, 1898
Filing date Dec 22, 1897
Inventors Day And George Day

Be it known that we, JOHN DAY and GEORGE DAY, subjects of the Queen of Great Britain and Ireland, and residents of Maesteg, Glamorgan county, England, have invented certain new and useful Improvements in Diving Apparatus, of which the following is a specification.

This invention relates to an improved divin g apparatus which consists of an inner noncollapsible jointed suit of improved construction and an outer flexible covering which serves to protect the suit-joints; and it may consist of an entire dress inflated with air, or of joint-coverings charged with suitable lubricant, or of an inflated body-dress, and leg, or leg and arm joint coverings charged with lubricant.

The invention has special reference to the joints of the suit, with the object of minimizing the friction and facilitating the movement thereof and obtaining a reliable water-tight joint, and to means of mechanically grasping objects under water.

……….

In the means of mechanically grasping objects under water (see Fig. 6) the forearmcasing E terminates in a hand-casing E, having a tubular extension 0, ending in a stuifing-box P. Projecting through the extension is a tube N, which within the casing E is fitted with a handle Q, and beyond the extension is formed with a stuffing-box T and is adapted to carry a pair of opposing grips M, pivoted at M and having inner projecting spurs W. Within the tube N is a rod T, which within the casing E is fitted with a handle Z and is screw-threaded and fitted with a wing-nut X, and beyond the stuffingbox T is formed with a head U, having notches V, adapted to engage with the gripspurs W. A spring Y is interposed between the handles Q Z, tending to separate the same and to open the grips M. The rod T can be reciprocated within the tube N to an extent determined by the engagement of projections Z on the handle end Z with slots Q in the handle end Q, which projections also prevent the rod T from turning Within the tube N. The tube N, rod T, and jaws M can be turned around or rotated about the axis of the rod T by turning the handles Q Z, and can be arrested in any desired position by a springcatch R, adapted to engage with holes S in a ledge projecting within the casing E. The grips M can be opened and closed by manipulating the handle Z and can be forcibly brought together by turning the nut X down the screwed portion of the rod T.


See other early Underwater Robots here.


1890 – Crustacean Diving Dress – Col. William Carey (British)

carey diving dress pat lside x640 1890   Crustacean Diving Dress   Col. William Carey (British)

1890 – Crustacean Diving Dress by Col. William Carey.

carey diving suit 1890 x640 1890   Crustacean Diving Dress   Col. William Carey (British)

carey diving dress pat front 2 x640 1890   Crustacean Diving Dress   Col. William Carey (British)

carey diving dress pat front x640 1890   Crustacean Diving Dress   Col. William Carey (British)

carey diving dress pat hand 2 x640 1890   Crustacean Diving Dress   Col. William Carey (British)

carey diving dress pat hand x640 1890   Crustacean Diving Dress   Col. William Carey (British)

Source: English Mechanic and World of Science – Volume 53, 1891 – Page 351

Col. William Carey, C. B., late R.A., the “crustacean diving dress,” which he has protected by [Great Britain] patents 3083, 4467, and 6494 [6431?] of 1890, in which he shows how the lesson taught by nature, in the shape of the lobster and the crab, may be utilised for the  construction of a diving dress for human beings superior to those at present in use.

The principle of its design being that "the lobster and crab in water do not carry their own shell." The particulars of this invention, a rather bizarre atmospheric diving suit made of metal, he had printed in a pamphlet, details from which are given in the article in the Star. William Carey was born in Guernsey in 1833, the son of Octavius Carey and Harriot Hirzel Le Marchant. He served in the Royal Artillery, and retired in 1891.

THE CRUSTACEAN DIVING DRESS.

THE fact that lobsters have been dredged up from depths exceeding 3,000 fathoms, suggested to Col. Carey, C.B., late R.A., the "crustacean diving dress," which he has protected by patents 3083, 4467, and 6431 of ISSO, which he shows how the lesson taught by nature, in the shape of the lobster and the crab, may be utilised for the construction of a diving dress.

Col. Carey contends that they must, first of all, be pressure resisting, so as to protect every part of a man's body from the weight of water surrounding him, amounting, roughly speaking, to about half a pound to the square inch for every foot in depth, to which he descends or desires to work in. The dress must be so constructed that the leg and arm casings must not only be flexible in all joints, but the dress itself and all its parts must be buoyant, carrying not only its own weight, but that of the diver as well, for it is manifest that if the limb casings are not buoyant and flexible, the diver will be unable to use his limbs, while if he is over-weighted with metal he will sink, and lie like a stone. Keeping these two broad principles in view. Col. Carey shows, by geometrical construction as well as by the most careful calculations, that such a design is feasible, and that its buoyancy — which means displacement in water — as well as its weight in metal, can be regulated to the 100,000th of a cubic inch, or less, and, having done so, contends that as a man, by reason of perfect buoyancy, would always be unsteady in water, he, the diver himself, must be the overweight to overcome that buoyancy, and by such an amount only as will enable him to ascend steady, and not be unsteady by the mere motion of his arms and hands when working. The amount of overweight can only be determined by practice, but, having arrived at this conclusion. Col. Carey saw that this is exactly the power exemplified in the crab and lobster to enable them to crawl and lie steadily at the bottom, and, watching them in an aquarium, it will be noticed that the crawling is by putting out one claw after another, for such movement does not overcome the extra weight enabling the fish to remain below; but, on one other hand, when all the claws are used together, the whole power of the fish is exerted and brought into play, for, although in lifting his flesh claw, the actual weight is taken off the bottom of the respective shell claws — which then rise by buoyancy, saving him the labour of raising the weight, — yet on his replacing the flesh claw, he replaces his weight and power, forcing the shell claw down against the resistance of the water, which then takes the small overweight of the fish and causes him to rise, while the drawing in of the front claws and shoving of the hind claws propels him through the water, and this causing him to swim ; and as the fish could not rise, as explained, if the overweight necessary to sink the shell exceeded that of the animal power, it is evident that nature regulates the growth and the construction of such fish, crustacea ??? ???, on that very principle demonstrating to man that if he attends to those points he will eventually succeed in so clothing himself, and obtain perfect mobility in water.


US Patent Publication number    US462202 A
Publication date    Oct 27, 1891
Filing date    Oct 31, 1890
Inventor    William Carey

Patented in England February 26, 1890,No. 3,083.

Be it known that I, WILLIAM CAREY, C. B., colonel Royal Artillery, a subject of the Queen of Great Britain, and a resident of Southampton, England, have invented certain new and useful Improvements in Diving Dresses.

My invention relates to diving-dresses, and is designed to improve the construction and increase the efficiency of the same.

Heretofore diving-dresses have usually been constructed in such a manner that when the diver is in the dress one or more additional weights are required to cause him to sink in the water. Moreover, such dresses have ordinarily been so made that the pressure of air within the diving-dress has had to be maintained equal to that of the water on the exterior of the dress. Consequently with the diving-dresses hitherto constructed the diver himself when working at great depths is subjected to very heavy pressure, the dress affording no protection to him in this respect, and the divers movements in the water are greatly impeded by his dress and by the additional weight or weights used for causing the dress with the diver therein to descend in the water.

My present invention is designed to facilitate the carrying out of submarine operations–that is to say, to enable divers to work with safety at greater depths and for longer periods than has hitherto been practicable, and to move in the water with greater ease and comfort than heretofore. For this purpose I construct my improved diving-dress on the same principles as those on which the shell-of the lobster or crab is formed. In other words, I so construct the diving dress that the weight thereof with the diver in it will be equal or approximately equal to the weight of the water displaced thereby. Therefore my improved diving-dress, though sufficiently buoyant to float by itself on the surface of the water, will when the diver is in the dress be caused by his weight, in addition to its own, to sink in the water, provided the diver-remains motionless. The diver can, however, by moving his limbs as required, rise in the water or travel through the same in any desired direction, the weight of the limb-casings being so proportioned that when either limb is raised by muscular action, the corresponding limb-casing will rise by its own buoyancy. Moreover, I so construct my improved diving-dress that it will withstand very high external pressure, thus obviating the necessity for introducing air under similar pressure into the dress. The pressure of the water is therefore borne not by the body of the diver, but entirely by the dress itself.

My diving-dress is made with peculiarly constructed spherical joints, whereby the separate parts of the dress are united in such a manner that the diver can freely use his limbs, and which are so constructed that the outer spheres of the said joints, which are formed in separate halves or parts, will be firmly closed and held together by the external pressure of the water, and very light clasps or fastenings of any convenient shape or form will serve for retaining them in place when the diver is out of the water. Each of these spherical joints is so constructed and arranged that its axis or center is coincident or approximately coincident with the joint of the divers body to which it corresponds.

Another feature of my said invention is the construction of the diving-dress in such a manner that the head-piece or helmet and the trunk or body portion extending to the stomach of the diver are or may be formed in a single piece, whereby a considerable increase in capacity is secured, and a storage of air is obtained sufficient to enable the diver to breathe for a considerable time in the event of injury to the air-tubes.

Another feature of my said invention is the arrangement of the inner spherical portion of the joint to work on pivots formed upon the interior of the outer spherical portion thereof, thus obviating the mechanical difficulties arising from the introduction of such pivots from the outside through a pivothole and the consequent liability to leakage and other defects.


Note:  The Minsky-Bennett "Tentacle" arm, and "Senster", a work of robotic art created by Edward Ihnatowicz, were also inspired by lobster observation and natures' design.


See other early Underwater Robots here.


1846 – Walking Wheel – James Boydell (British)

boydell traction wheel x640 1846   Walking Wheel   James Boydell (British)

1846 – Walking Wheel by James Boydell

A dreadnaught wheel is a wheel with articulated rails attached at the rim to provide a firm footing for the wheel to roll over, they have also been known as endless railway wheels when fitted to road locomotives, and were commonly fitted to steam traction engines.
Bottrill's "Big Lizzie" with Dreadnaught wheels

Prior to wide adoption of continuous track on vehicles, traction engines were cumbersome and not suited to crossing soft ground or the rough roads and farm tracks of the time. The "endless rails" were flat boards or steel plates loosely attached around the outer circumference of the wheel which spread the weight of the vehicle over a larger surface and hence were less likely to get bogged by sinking into soft ground or skidding on slippery tracks.

Some references also use the term pedrail, but the pedrail wheel of 1903 is a more complex arrangement that incorporates internal springing.

Bottrill referred to the rails as "ped-rail shoes".

Boydell tractor dreadnaught x640 1846   Walking Wheel   James Boydell (British)

Image source: Remarkable Australian Farm Machines: Ingenuity on the Land  By Graeme R. Quick

Burrell Boydell tractor dreadnaught x640 1846   Walking Wheel   James Boydell (British)

An early version was patented (British 11,357) by James Boydell in August 1846 and February 1854. Boydell worked with the British steam traction engine manufacturer Charles Burrell & Sons to produce road haulage engines from 1856 that used his continuous track design. Burrell later patented refinements of Boydell's design.

Boydell's design saw service with the British Army in the Crimean War where it was known as "The Megatherium war horse".

Source with references: Wiki


See other early Walking Wheels and  Walking Machines here.


1973 – “Robbie” the Pulpit Robot – Rev. Ron Mackenzie (British)

religious robot press 1 x640 1973   Robbie the Pulpit Robot   Rev. Ron Mackenzie (British)

1973 – "Robbie" the Pulpit Robot by the Rev. Ron Mackenzie

robbie robot mackenzie press 7 x640 1973   Robbie the Pulpit Robot   Rev. Ron Mackenzie (British)

robbie robot school press 1 x640 1973   Robbie the Pulpit Robot   Rev. Ron Mackenzie (British)

ROBOT IN THE PULPIT

Sunday school with a difference: Helping the Reverend Ron Mackenzie is Robbie, the robot he designed and built himself 8 years ago. Robbie was built to help attract children to church and he has proved to be an enormous success.
Pic by Colin Harvey

robbie robot school ron mckenzie press 2 x640 1973   Robbie the Pulpit Robot   Rev. Ron Mackenzie (British)

ron mackenzie robbie robot press 1 x640 1973   Robbie the Pulpit Robot   Rev. Ron Mackenzie (British)

79664008 london england 29th august 1973 two little gettyima x640 1973   Robbie the Pulpit Robot   Rev. Ron Mackenzie (British)

[Note: The above Getty image, I believe, incorrectly, says the robot was built by Peter Stanley.]

religious robbie robot x640 1973   Robbie the Pulpit Robot   Rev. Ron Mackenzie (British)

“The Reverend Ronald John MacKenzie of the Elim Pentecostal Church, Nottingham, England, introduces his robot Robbie to some local children in the garden[…] MacKenzie uses Robbie as an aid in reaching and teaching children in his Sunday School classes.”

– (AP Photo,2013)

robbie robot mackenzie press 5 x640 1973   Robbie the Pulpit Robot   Rev. Ron Mackenzie (British)

Robbies' eyes flash and his booming "voice" is a loadspeaker. The Rev. Ron Mackenzie spent 8 months using his old skills as an engineer to construct 5 ft. high, 18-inch square Robbie. Robbie has white eyes, a red nose, and lights on the top of his head to indicate when he is "thinking".

robbie robot mackenzie press 1 x640 1973   Robbie the Pulpit Robot   Rev. Ron Mackenzie (British)

ROBOT IN THE PULPIT

The Demonstration: Ron Mackenzie dons a protective coat for a lively demonstration of the bible story about the men who built their houses on sand and the firm rock. Standing by to help with the tale, is Robbie the robot, designed and built by the Reverend Ron Mackenzie for a Sunday School class in Croydon south London,
Pic by Colin Harvey

robbie robot mackenzie press 2 x640 1973   Robbie the Pulpit Robot   Rev. Ron Mackenzie (British)

robbie robot mackenzie press 4 x640 1973   Robbie the Pulpit Robot   Rev. Ron Mackenzie (British)

robbie robot mackenzie press 6 x640 1973   Robbie the Pulpit Robot   Rev. Ron Mackenzie (British)

robbie robot church 73 1973   Robbie the Pulpit Robot   Rev. Ron Mackenzie (British)


See other early Humanoid Robots here.


1965-8 – Space Pod – 2001: A Space Odyssey – Clarke (British) / Kubrick (American)

2001 eva pod taschen x640 1965 8   Space Pod   2001: A Space Odyssey   Clarke (British) / Kubrick (American)

EVA Pod – The EVA Pod is a fictional spacecraft used for extra-vehicular activity seen in the movie 2001: A Space Odyssey. The Jupiter spacecraft Discovery One carries three of these small, one-man maintenance vehicles.

[EVA – Extra-Vehicular Activity i.e. activity outside of the prime space vehicle.]


2001 pod bay props x640 1965 8   Space Pod   2001: A Space Odyssey   Clarke (British) / Kubrick (American)

Film stage.

2001 pod bay  x640(1) 1965 8   Space Pod   2001: A Space Odyssey   Clarke (British) / Kubrick (American)


atkinson pod2 x640 1965 8   Space Pod   2001: A Space Odyssey   Clarke (British) / Kubrick (American)

Detail of manipulator arms. Illustrations by Simon Atkinson.

It has always intrigued me as to why the manipulator arms were designed they way they were i.e. a pair of forearms on each arm. Practically one can only use a single arm/gripper at one time. In most scenes featuring the pod in action, only one arm/gripper are used at any one  time.

2001 66 getty77453598 x640 1965 8   Space Pod   2001: A Space Odyssey   Clarke (British) / Kubrick (American)

I feel the reason may be that, for large objects, the paired forearms act as a large gripper in itself. For the film, it may have been designed this way as the only practical means of recovering Poole's body, as seen in the two images below.

2001 pod catch x640 1965 8   Space Pod   2001: A Space Odyssey   Clarke (British) / Kubrick (American)

2001 pod space suit x640 1965 8   Space Pod   2001: A Space Odyssey   Clarke (British) / Kubrick (American)


2001 pod quarter x640 1965 8   Space Pod   2001: A Space Odyssey   Clarke (British) / Kubrick (American)

Fred Ordway III was the key technical consultant for Stanley Kubrick's sci-fi masterpiece "2001: A Space Odyssey" .

A lucky moment came in January 1965, as Ordway explained in a book, "2001: A Space Odyssey in Retrospect." He was in New York to meet with publishers for a book he and a colleague, Harry H.K. Lange, had written and illustrated about future life in space. He learned that his friend, Arthur Clarke, a British science writer, was in town and so requested they meet. During their discussion about the space program and Wernher von Braun, they learned each was developing story themes in common.

Clarke happened to be working with Stanley Kubrick on a screenplay for Space Odyssey, which was based on Clarke's earlier work, "The Sentinel." Ordway and Lange's book "Intelligence in the Universe", co-authored by Roger A. MacGowan of the Army Computation Center in Huntsville was essentially the same concept: man facing the immensity of the universe and that life may exist out among the stars.

They showed Clarke their artwork and talked more before adjourning for other engagements. Before leaving the club, Ordway got an unexpected call. It was Kubrick, whom Clarke had notified immediately after his meeting with Ordway and Lange. From then on he was engaged as Kubrick's technical consultant on space issues.

Footnote: August 2014:  Sadly, Fred Ordway passed away on July 1, 2014, aged 87. A Harvard graduate and a former NASA scientist for the Saturn V rocket, he had an unquenchable thirst for learning about the universe and excelled as an educator, researcher, consultant and author..

2001podTb x640 1965 8   Space Pod   2001: A Space Odyssey   Clarke (British) / Kubrick (American)

2001 pod atkinson front x640 1965 8   Space Pod   2001: A Space Odyssey   Clarke (British) / Kubrick (American)

Front Elevation.

2001 pod atkinson side x640 1965 8   Space Pod   2001: A Space Odyssey   Clarke (British) / Kubrick (American)

Side Elevation: Illustrations by Simon Atkinson.

2001pod x640 1965 8   Space Pod   2001: A Space Odyssey   Clarke (British) / Kubrick (American)

Robert McCall's promotional film poster.

AMAS 2001 Presentation 05 32 08 059 x640 1965 8   Space Pod   2001: A Space Odyssey   Clarke (British) / Kubrick (American)

Stanley Kubrick on set with the Pods.

clarke 2001 pod portrait x640 1965 8   Space Pod   2001: A Space Odyssey   Clarke (British) / Kubrick (American)

Portrait of Arthur C. Clarke.

clarke style spacesuit pod nemean x640 1965 8   Space Pod   2001: A Space Odyssey   Clarke (British) / Kubrick (American)

Nemean's Space Pod design as described in Clarke's earlier short stories such as ‘Who’s There?’ and ‘Summertime on Icarus’ is much more of a stubby cylinder.


podbody x640 1965 8   Space Pod   2001: A Space Odyssey   Clarke (British) / Kubrick (American)

podturn x640 1965 8   Space Pod   2001: A Space Odyssey   Clarke (British) / Kubrick (American)

Space Pod Specification: Sourced from here.

EVA Pod

Title: Grumman DC-5 EVA Craft
Number Produced:  45
14 for Space Station Five,
11 for Space Station Four
7 for Space Station Three***
5 Replacement vehicles
4 test vehicles
3 for Discovery One
1 Replica**
1 for Discovery Prototype
Mass at Earth Gravity: 1,387 Kg.
Overall Diameter: 1.98 m.
Capacity: One Person Standard; Three Person Emergency
Propulsion systems: Ten Mk 12 (140 Kgs. Thrust) for major course changes along all axes; Eight Mk 17 (35 Kgs. Thrust) for precision maneuvers; Eight Mk 8 micro-thrusters (10 Kgs.) for low-gravity station-keeping; Five Mk 14 (80 Kgs. Thrust)  provide roll; One Mk 37 (500 Kgs. Thrust) for use in emergency.
Life Support: 12 Hrs. (One Person)
Radar: Grumman EPS-2D; Long Range; Active Pulse
Other Equipment: Explosive Bolt Door Separation*; Short-range Object Approach System and Transponder; Complete HAL 9000 Data link System; Automatic Thruster Control; Auto Hover; Eight-Channel communication system; Advanced Manipulator Control System; Two-hour Oxygen Reserve System.
Notes: The Grumman DC-5 carries can carry little in the way of food and water stocks, due to short life support capacity. A single air conditioning vent is provided.
Misc. Technical Information: (From Frederick Ordway and the British Interplanetary Association)
Propulsion: A subliming solid system provides vernier propulsion, wherein the solid propellent sublimes at a constant pressure and is emitted from a nozzle. Such reaction jets will last for long periods of time, have great reliability and use no mechanical valves. The main propulsion system is powered from by storable liquids.
Mechanical Hand Controls: Selection controls are placed on each side so that the appropriate hand must be removed from the manipulator to select a tool or to park. Selection of a tool returns the arm to the 'park' position, where it leaves the 'hand', then the arm goes to the appropriate tool and plugs in. In doing so, it inhibits the 'finger' controls on the manipulator, so that when the operator returns his hand into the glove he can only move a solid object, not individual fingers.
Television: It was found possible to produce all-round TV coverage with eight fixed cameras. This, however, did not give a sufficiently accurate picture for docking or selecting a landing space. For this purpose, the field of view can be narrowed or orientated; controls are included for this purpose.
Normally, the TV link is occupied by the internal camera, so that the parent craft can monitor the pod interior. The pilot can switch in any other camera for specific purposes (survey, etc.) reverting to interior camera for normal work.
Proximity Detector: This is the safety system with omnidirectional coverage working from the main communication aerials. It gives audible warning when the pod approaches a solid object. This is necessary as a safety measure as the pilot cannot monitor seven or eight TV displays continuously. The system also detects an approach to an object, the speed of which is too high to be counteracted by the vernier thrust settings on the control system. In this event, full reverse thrust is applied, overriding the manual control setting. The system depends upon a frequency modulated transmission and under safe conditions results in a low, soft audible background signal. This continuous signal is considered necessary in order to provide a continuous check on a vital safety system. If the speed of an approach to an object becomes dangerous compared with the distance from it, the tone becomes louder and higher pitched, and, if unchecked, end in a shrill note accompanied by reverse thrust. The system also works in conjunction with a transponder (to the give the necessary increased range) to measure distance from the Discovery.
Flying Controls: Manual controls are considered necessary both as a standby and for local maneuvers. Two hand control sticks, each with two degrees of freedom and fitted with twist grips, provide the necessary control about six axes.
Analog information is presented for attitude, heading rate and distance; these can be referred to local ground (for landing, takeoff, etc.), course (which enables the pilot to face forward, head up, on any preselected course, or parent ship (for docking, local maneuvers, etc.) This data has to be presented, as the pilot has to act immediately on them. This is the most easily assimilated display. A variation in full scale rate, which can be applied by the control sticks, is included; this allows the full stick movements to result in any proportion of vernier motor thrust, thus giving a 'fine' control for local maneuvers.

Notes:
*When I think about it, I don't think the door ever separated from the pod. It seems that it was simply opened extremely quickly by the explosive bolts. If the door actually WAS blown off, it would have smashed into the airlock's outer door; breaking into several pieces. This would fly back towards Dave, and as many people would put it, that would be a very bad thing.
**This is non-operational, and do not carry any functional systems. The single replica is currently on display at the NASM's "21st Century Space Flight" display.
***Earlier Space Stations are not capable of supporting the design.

PodCockpit x640 1965 8   Space Pod   2001: A Space Odyssey   Clarke (British) / Kubrick (American)

Interior of the Pod.


preprod art pod x640 1965 8   Space Pod   2001: A Space Odyssey   Clarke (British) / Kubrick (American)

Pre-production sketches.

space odyssey 2001 pod jupiter x640 1965 8   Space Pod   2001: A Space Odyssey   Clarke (British) / Kubrick (American)

2001 66 getty106951966 x640 1965 8   Space Pod   2001: A Space Odyssey   Clarke (British) / Kubrick (American)


See other early Space Teleoperators here.

See other early Lunar and Space Robots here.