Posts Tagged ‘American’

1969 – NR-1 Submersible – General Dynamics (American)

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1969 – NR-1 Submersible by General Dynamics.

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Early design sketch of the NR-1 sub.

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Builder: General Dynamics Electric Boat
Laid down: 10 June 1967
Launched: 25 January 1969

Source: Wikipedia
NR-1 is able to land on the seafloor on a pair of retractable wheels and can lift heavy objects with a manipulator arm system. NR-1's major strength, however, is the ability to provide a stable platform and abundant electric power for surveillance missions of two weeks or longer.

The custom-built, one-of-a-kind vessel carried no weapons, measured just 140 ft and travelled at just four knots, but held ten men for up to a month at a time.

It was a pet project of Admiral Hyman Rickover, the 'father of the nuclear Navy', and contained a custom-built mini nuclear reactor which powered it as deep as 3,000 feet.

Once on the sea bed, it had wheels and lights to explore the ocean floor.

It was mainly a research sub, but also performed Cold War military missions which remain highly classified.


See also Simon Lake's 1931 "Explorer"  as an earlier example of a submersible on wheels!

See other early Underwater Robots here.


1978 – ARMS 1 – Oceaneering (American)

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1978 – ARMS 1 (Atmospheric Roving Manipulator System)

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As early as 1971, Dr. Norman H. Wood, program engineer for General Electric's Cybernetic Automation & Mechanization Systems Section, described a new underwater manipulator system devised for use on a multi-well submerged platform. GE's activities in manipulators date back to the company's nuclear power development and space projects. It was a development based on the G.E. Model M-2 Manipulator Arm.

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In 1974, Oceaneering International, Inc., of Houston started developing a 3,000 ft. two-man diving bell jointly developed by Perry Oceanographies, General Electric Company and Oceaneering themselves. Called the Atmospheric Roving Manipulator System (ARMS), which would use an advanced capability force-feedback manipulator featuring a seven function master arm inside a manned submersible and a slave working arm outside that provides “feel” to the operator, from the Re-entry & Environmental Systems Div., General Electric Co., Philadelphia. GE reports "With the G.E. underwater force-feedback manipulator, the operator no longer has to rely on the sometimes difficult decision making processes".

G.E. call their system the Diver Equivalent Manipulator System (DEMS), which can be operated from the inside or from the surface. The arm reaches over 5 ft and can handle 65 lb with only 5 lb of operator hand pressure. This manipulator system has six degrees of freedom plus a grip. If the slave holds a 65 pound weight the operator "feels" a smaller, 5 pound weight (DEMS has 13:1 force ratio). By responding to the force feedback, the operator allows the manipulator to comply to external forces.

The bell is a 72" sphere, designed to accommodate two people, with an emergency support capability of up to five days.

The GE arm system has a reach of 1.6 metres, 29.5 kg rated load and operates to a depth of 1829 m.

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Oceaneering International took delivery on the Perry-built, one-atmosphere vehicle ARMS in late 1976 and was first demonstrated in March 1977.

In 1978, ARMS-I, mainly employed for deepwater drill rig support, was in service on the Ben Ocean Lancer drillship in the Gulf of Mexico.
In the 1980's, Oceaneering renamed ARMS and was now called Ocean-Arms Bells.

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The "Aluminaut" also employed G.E. force-feedback arms.


From: Phil Nuytten : Source: here.
To: personal_submersibles
Sent: Fri, Nov 18, 2011 4:46 pm
Subject: Re: [PSUBS-MAILIST] Anyone Know Tom Pado or Total Marine Technology?

All: Yup, I know Tom Pado – he used to work for us at Oceaneering International Inc. He and John Fike were the lead pilots on a series of 3,000 foot rated thruster/manipulator bells designed for offshore oil related work – the series was called 'Ocean Arms' and Perry built Arms 1 through 3, We built 'Arms 4' here in B.C. and it's still here – out in the boneyard. The thruster bells were really only a piloted delivery system for the G.E. force-feedback, spatially compliant manipulator arm. (O.I.I. owned all rights to the G.E. arm – the rights were purchased from General Electric – it was used in their 'Man-mate' program.) The G.E. arm was, in my opinion, the best manipulator arm ever made – right up to current time. Biggest problem was cost – about $250,000 per arm and controllers. I used this system many times and it was superb!
Phil


General Electric's Re-entry & Environmental Systems Division later became Western Space and Marine.


See other early Underwater Robots here.

See other G.E. CAMS here:

1956- GE Yes Man
1958-9- GE Handyman – Ralph Mosher
1969 – GE Walking Truck – Ralph Mosher
1965-71- GE Hardiman I
1969- GE Man-Mate Industrial manipulator

1973 – Under Sea Mobility – Ralph Mosher (American)

Underwater Army Bases and Depot (See Figure 51: Under Sea Mobility)
Recent marine biology and ocean engineering work have resulted in some startling underwater activity concepts and systems designs that promise to pave the way to a profitable exploitation of untapped water resources. It is not difficult to argue that before this decade has passed the Army, as well as the Navy, will be involved in exploiting and protecting our underwater territory.
Already, large oil companies are competing for underwater rights for oil well operations. The United States government is the guardian of this territory and has the specific operational guidelines. Petroleum industries are currently designing huge and complex underwater oil mining operations. The author predicts that some day in the near future they will operate their own underwater stations. There are obvious advantages to this foray into our underwater territory.
The petroleum industries have found that to operate these underwater complexes they need transportation and mobility. They have design vehicles that travel from the surface down to the site and are able to do work by means of underwater manipulators. It follows that a necessary and valuable tool for underwater work will be unusual vehicles that can provide the ability for man to work remotely as he would on earth directly. The illustration in Figure 51 of this unusual underwater vehicle is a concept that might not ever be realized. However, it is predicted that the elements of this concept, the legs, and the manipulator arms, and the man's ability to operate the vehicle from within, are concepts that will be used to provide the kind of functions illustrated.

From: Technical Report Number 11768, Applying Force Feedback Servomechanism Technology To Mobility Platforms, Ralph Mosher, 1973.


The earlier G.E. Pedipulator concept dates back to 1962-64.

Land-based concepts done 1962, test Pedipulator demonstrated in 1964. It was never completed as a proposal for a more useful quadruped was put forward and accepted (see here ).


See other early Underwater Robots here.

See other G.E. CAMS here:

1956- GE Yes Man
1958-9- GE Handyman – Ralph Mosher
1969 – GE Walking Truck – Ralph Mosher
1965-71- GE Hardiman I
1969- GE Man-Mate Industrial manipulator

1971 – Trieste II Submersible – (American)

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1971 – Trieste II Submersible with Manipulator Arm.

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DSV-1 Trieste II

When the submarine Thresher was lost on 10 April 1963, a committee established under Admiral Stephan [the Oceanographer of the Navy] to assess the implications of the accident concluded that the Navy did not have the operational assets to conduct missions in the deep sea. The loss of the Thresher was a wake up call for the Navy. A summary of the Thresher search operation in 1965 highlighting the Navy's inadequacy in deep-sea search, location, and rescue noted that the tragedy "demonstrated only too clearly the degree of ignorance and inability which surrounded the entire business."

To rectify this deficiency the Deep Submergence Systems Project, initially assigned to the Special Projects Office responsible for developing the Polaris Fleet Ballistic Missile System, was established to develop deep ocean capabilities. Subsequently other associated development programs were assigned to the Deep Submergence Systems Project office, including the development of the NR-1 nuclear powered research submarine. The intelligence community also established Deep Submergence development requirements.

A decision was made to build a second bathyscaphe, Trieste II, with the original Trieste assigned to the Deep Submergence Systems Project to test equipment that would be employed on other deep submergence systems. The new Trieste II, built at the Mare Island Naval Shipyard in September 1965, was a more sophisticated craft capable of clandestine operations in the deep ocean. DSV-1 Trieste II was designed by the Naval Electronic Laboratory, San Diego, CA, as a successor to Trieste -the Navy's pioneer bathyscaph. Trieste II incorporated the Terni, Italian-built sphere used in Trieste with an entirely new bathyscaph float-one more seaworthy and streamlined. Controlled from the pressure-resistant sphere on the underside, Trieste II was equipped with cameras, sonars, and sensors for scientific observation at great depths. Her instrumentation could be varied to suit the mission in hand. Completed in early 1964, conducted dives in the vicinity of the loss site of Thresher – operations commenced by the first Trieste the year before. She recovered bits of wreckage, positively fixing the remains as that of the lost Thresher, in September 1964.

Subsequently shipped back to San Diego, Trieste II underwent a series of modifications until April 1965, when she was launched on 19 April to undertake the first of many dives as test and training vehicle for the Navy's new deep submergence program. After a series of dives off San Diego, Trieste II underwent further modifications at Mare Island to improve the craft's undersea navigation, control, and small object recovery. When the Scorpion was lost on 22 May 1968, the previously unacknowledged Trieste II was used by the Navy to carry out the investigation.

This unique craft was listed only as "equipment" in the Navy inventory until the autumn of 1969. On 1 September 1969, Trieste II was placed in service, with the hull number X-l. Reclassified as a deep submergence vehicle (DSV) on 1 June 1971, Trieste II (DSV-1) continued her active service in the Pacific Fleet into 1980, and in May 1984 she was assigned to Submarine Development Group 1. She was moved to the Keyport Naval Undersea Warfare Center in 1985. Trieste II made dives as deep as 20,000 feet.

Source: here.

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Excerpt by Don Walsh.
Navy Electronics Laboratory (NEL) in San Diego.
Trieste was retired in 1963 at the age of ten, after it had returned to NEL from working at the site where Thresher (SSN-598) had been lost. At least two other versions of Trieste, all named "Trieste II", served with the Navy until 1982. With the retirement of Trieste II the world’s last bathyscaph was gone, since Archimede had been retired in the late 1970s

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Artists illustration showing another manipulator arm. This arm was commissioned when Trieste II was in DSV-1 guise [Deep Submergence Vehicle-1].

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As well as the manipulator arm, Trieste II had a Grapple Hook mounted up front on the bow.

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See Trieste [I] here.

See other early Underwater Robots here.


1968 – Beaver Mark IV Submersible – Rockwell (American)

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1968 – Beaver Mark IV Submersible by North American Rockwell. Renamed “Roughneck” in 1969.

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UNSPECIFIED - JANUARY 01:  Submarine Beaver Mark Iv In 1970.  (Photo by Keystone-France/Gamma-Keystone via Getty Images)

UNSPECIFIED – JANUARY 01: Submarine Beaver Mark Iv In 1970. (Photo by Keystone-France/Gamma-Keystone via Getty Images)

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Each of the two manipulators has a 9-ft reach, eight degrees-of-freedom, and a 50-lb lifting capacity. The two manipulators can be equipped with nine different tools to perform various tasks. These tools are: impact wrench, hook hand, parallel jaws, cable cutter, stud gun, centrifugal pump, grapple, drill chuck, and tapping chuck. Rates of motion are variable.

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Above and below photo source: Manned Submersibles, Bushby.

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Artists concept.


See other early Underwater Robots here.