Posts Tagged ‘1966’

1966 – “Herman” Mobile Remote Manipulator – PaR Systems (American)

PaR 1 x640 1966   Herman Mobile Remote Manipulator   PaR Systems (American)

The PaR-1 mobile manipulator. The vehicle and manipulator are powered and controlled by cable. The manipulator arm and the two TV cameras are mounted on articulated booms. The height of the central support tube is 68 inches. PaR was a subsiduary of GCA when this model came out.

PaR mobile robot 0007 x640 1966   Herman Mobile Remote Manipulator   PaR Systems (American)

PaR-1 with its remote operating console. It is cable-connected.

PaR mobile robot 0004 x640 1966   Herman Mobile Remote Manipulator   PaR Systems (American)

robot herman 6 x640 1966   Herman Mobile Remote Manipulator   PaR Systems (American)

"Herman" Mobile Remote Manipulator

robot herman 22 x640 1966   Herman Mobile Remote Manipulator   PaR Systems (American)

Nuclear Radiation Can't Scare Robot – Source:The Cornell Daily Sun, Volume 95, Number 122, 6 April 1979

Middletown , Pa . AP If the time comes to walk into a room hot with lethal doses of radiation at Three Mile Island, the first one in will be Herman — and he won't have a choice.
Herman is a robot.
As a nuclear life-saver , he has worked wonders.  But as a robot, the 13-year old mechanical marvel probably would be a vast disappointment to science fiction fans weaned on R2D2.
Herman is mainly a large motorized box. He (she? it?) is 5 feet long, 6 feet tall and mounted on tank-like treads. He has one long arm and two strong fingers.
The robot's range extends to 400 feet, a limit set by his umbilical cord, a power control cable.
Harold Denton , operations chief for the Nuclear Regulatory Commission, told reporters Wednesday: "We haven't used Herman the Robot yet, but we hope to use him to take samples in high radiation areas and avoid unnecessary exposures of radiation to people."
Herman was created in 1966 when a fire at the government's Savannah River uraniun enrichment plant in South Carolina showed the need for remote-control, mobile equipment that was radiation resistant.
Two television cameras give Herman his sight . He can switch from performing delicate manuevers to lifting 160-pound loads or dragging 500 pounds , said James Alexander, an official of the Oak Ridge National Laboratory in Tennessee, where Herman is usually kept in the "Y-12 weapons  plant."
"Herman has a very delicate touch. He can do many things as you can do with your two fingers," Alexander said. "He can turn valves. He can pick up very small objects … He can take a bucket in behind him, put it on the ground, reach over, pick up something, put it in bucket, the take the bucket, put it somewhere else."
This would be Herman's first tour of duty at a commercial nuclear power plant but he has shown his worth before in dealing with nuclear incidents.
A few years ago, Herman freed a container of radioactive Cobalt 60 that had gotten stuck in a pneumatic transfer tube in a lab at the University of Rochester.
Another time, Herman crawled into a physics lab at the University of the South in Sewanee, Tenn., to retrieve a radioactive source that had gotten loose. Using his single arm, he placed the source back into its protective container.

robot herman x640 1966   Herman Mobile Remote Manipulator   PaR Systems (American)

At the time [1984], with the Department of Energy's okay, the robot and operators are dispatched to the troubled site. Union Carbide receives what it terms a "full recovery" fee—money that covers the salaries of the robot's personnel, transportation, lodgings, and meals. Union Carbide does not sell the Y-12 plant mobile manipulator, as Herman is known. It paid $63,010 when it bought the robot several years ago. Vehicles like Herman could still be bought from Programs and Remote Systems Corporation.

robot herman 79 1 x640 1966   Herman Mobile Remote Manipulator   PaR Systems (American)

robot herman 79 2 x640 1966   Herman Mobile Remote Manipulator   PaR Systems (American)

Y-12's Herman still on standby

 Four Oak Ridge Y-12 Plant men who operate the plant's mobile manipulator or robot, nicknamed "Herman," have returned home after a week of standby duty at the Three Mile Island nuclear power plant, subject to 24-hour recall. The robot remains at Three Mile Island.
 Robert W. Frazier, team leader, William Pankratz, Thomas E. Copeland and Richard Turner, all of Y-12 Maintenance Division, were summoned to the power plant site March 30 to operate the robot if its services were needed during the emergency. The manipulator system was transported to Pennsylvania in its travel van, driven by Department of Energy personnel.

 One mission considered for the robot was that it enter a room which has a high radiation level and take samples of the primary coolant water for chemical and radiological analysis. During their week's stay at the power plant, the crew members rehearsed this mission, which would have involved about 35 separate operations and would have required 8 to 10 hours to complete.
     Press interest
 At week's end, Nuclear Regulatory Commission officials at the scene informed the Y-12 team that the operation had been postponed and that team members could return home, subject to possible recall at a later time. The manipulator system was reloaded into the travel van, but is being retained at the power plant site.
 The robot apparently captured the imagination of news reporters covering the story. Wire services and newspapers across the nation requested file photographs of the maniuplator system, and all three national television networks requested file videotape scenes of the system in action (made in a Y-12 documentary video program in 1977). The robot provided the lead story for the "CBS Evening News" program on April 4 [1979].        
The manipulator system, built to Nuclear Division design specifications by a commercial vendor [PaR Systems] in 1966, consists of the mobile manipulator, its control console and a workroom-laboratory. The manipulator is designed to operate at distances up to 700 feet from the control console, to which it is attached by a cable. The manipulator is about five feet long, six feet high and about two and one-half feet wide. It has a mechanical hand capable of lifting 160 pounds and dragging 500 pounds. Two television cameras mounted behind the arm transmit pictures to monitors on the control console.
  The manipulator system was obtained by Y-12 as a safety support
backup in operations involving the handling of toxic or radioactive materials in the plant. It has been used outside Oak Ridge on two previous occasions to recover radioactive sources: at the University of Rochester in 1975 and the University of the South at Sewanee in 1976.

Source: Nuclear Division News [Union Carbide] April 19, 1979.

alshade record 1979 herman robot tmi x640 1966   Herman Mobile Remote Manipulator   PaR Systems (American)

Record cover made soon after the Three Mile Island accident in 1979.


PaR is still in business and this is their current single-arm remote mobile manipulator.

Mobile Manipulator PaR x640 1966   Herman Mobile Remote Manipulator   PaR Systems (American)

par mobile new 1966   Herman Mobile Remote Manipulator   PaR Systems (American)


See also post titled "1960 – Space Manipulators – General Mills" for description on General Mill's approach to manipulator design concepts.

See other early Teleoperators here.


1966-7 – Space Taxi (Concept) – LTV (American)

MSFC space taxi x640 1966 7   Space Taxi (Concept)   LTV (American)

LTV Space Taxi concept.

LTV spacePod09 1966 7   Space Taxi (Concept)   LTV (American)

Mock-up using models.

LTV spacePod11 1966 7   Space Taxi (Concept)   LTV (American)

LTV spacePod12 1966 7   Space Taxi (Concept)   LTV (American)

Full-scale mock-up

Images sourced from here as original pdf currently unavailable.

•    Ling-Temco-Vought Maneuvering Work Platform and  Space Taxi
In 1966, Ling-Temco-Vought (LTV), in conjunction with Argonne National Laboratory (ANL), completed a thorough investigation of manned maneuvering manipulator spacecrafts for the NASA Marshall Space Flight Center. The objectives of the LTV program, called the Independent Manned Manipulator (IMM) Study, were as follows
– Produce the conceptual designs and mockups of two selected IMM units which extend and enhance man's utilization in the support of AAP experiments and overall areas of EVA during future space exploration.
– Define Research, Development, and Engineering (RD&E) required to implement the IMM systems.
– Develop preliminary program definition plans which lead to flight-qualified hardware in the 1969-1971 time period.
The IMM vehicle designs were evaluated against NASA-specified criteria, and two concepts were selected for detailed analysis. the Maneuvering Work Platform (MWP) and the Space Taxi. The preliminary program definition plans were developed for obtaining the MWP flight-qualified hardware in the 1969-1971 time period and 1972-1974 for the Space Taxi.

space taxi schematic x640 1966 7   Space Taxi (Concept)   LTV (American)

•    Space Taxi Configuration
The Space Taxi configuration, selected and recommended for use in 1975 and beyond, features a multiple crew station built into a rotary vehicle which permits orientation of each operator station relative to the worksite. Electrical bilateral master-slave manipulators were selected by AEC/ANL for incorporation into the Space Taxi configuration.
Figure 5-18 presents the preliminary design of the selected Space Taxi concept developed during the detail analysis phase. The basic vehicle consists of a cylindrical, structural shell, the center portion of which is a pressure vessel forming the crew compartment. The upper and lower unpressurized compartments contain vehicle subsystems and equipments. After worksite attachment, the basic taxi is free to turn about its longitudinal axis in rotary fashion. The rotational motion is accomplished with the upper and lower turrets which support the three anchoring and docking arms. Attached to the sides of the Taxi are the two maintenance manipulator slave arms. An Apollo docking adapter and hatch and an extravehicular maintenance egress hatch are provided. A major element inside the crew compartment is the dual function manipulator master controller. It can swing 180deg to serve as the worksite anchoring arm controller and is a bilateral maintenance manipulator controller.
The Space Taxi is designed for one crewman with the capability to carry another man in a rescue situation. The craft would have a range of approximately 1 1/4 miles in any orbital direction. Like the MWP, its normal duration is 8 hours with a rescue contingency of 2 hours. The physical characteristics of the Space Taxi are:
– Overall length* – 150 inches
– Overall width. – 84 inches (maximum)
– Gross weight (nominal)** – dry, 3198 pounds; wet, 3474 pounds.
* Maximum stowage envelope
** Includes 732 pounds for crew systems and tools/ spares
Translation/Stabilization/Control Subsystem
The Space Taxi uses a hybrid stabilization and control system consisting of control moment gyros (CMG) and jet reaction components. Its characteristics are:
Propulsion:
Propellant – Monopropellant hydrazine
Total Impulse – 51,000 lb/sec.
Total deltaV capability – 488 ft/sec.

Stabilization and Control:
Stabilization and Control Deadband -+2deg
Acceleration (maximum)
Angular – Roll – 16.3deg/sec2
Pitch – 15deg/sec2
Yaw – 40deg/sec2
X – .97 ft/sec2
y – .48 ft/sec2
Z – .48 ft/sec2
Number of thrusters – 24 (25 lbs. max. thrust each)
Rotational rates (maximum)
Roll – 13.1deg/sec.
Pitch – 12deg/sec.
Yaw – 31.80deg/sec.
Actuator Subsystem
The actuator subsystem consists of three electrically connected bilateral docking and anchoring arms used for stabilization at the worksite and two electrically connected bilateral manipulators used for tasks at the worksite.
Environmental Control Subsystem
The SpaceTaxi ECS/LS system provides a 5 psia, 70/30 percent, oxygen-nitrogen atmosphere for closed-cabin operation.
ECS/LS Duration – Nominal    8 hours
Contingency, 2 hours
Metabolic Rates – Average    1250 Btu/hr.
Peak    In excess. of 2150 Btu/hr.
Total heat load capability – 47,703 Btu Repreasurization cycles – 2
A Space Taxi weight summary is shown in Table 5-4 [below].

 1966 7   Space Taxi (Concept)   LTV (American)


Goertz ANL unmanned robot configuration   Copy x640 1966 7   Space Taxi (Concept)   LTV (American)

From 1960, Ray Goertz, who invented electrically remote manipulators for the nuclear industry, together with his team at Argonne Nuclear Laboratories (ANL), were engaged by NASA to specify teleoperator configurations for the Lunar space program. The result is illustrated above.

It should be noted that floating vehicles share one problem. This is their inability to stay immobile relative to the object on which they must act. Hence, they are equipped with docking arms, other than the manipulator(s) directly intended to execute the task, to attach them to the object of their task, whether this is another satellite or an underwater oil platform.

The LTV Space Taxi follows this generalized configuration.


Grappler layout and prototype.

LTV podArm02 1966 7   Space Taxi (Concept)   LTV (American)

LTV podArm03 1966 7   Space Taxi (Concept)   LTV (American)

LTV podArm04 1966 7   Space Taxi (Concept)   LTV (American)

LTV podArm05 1966 7   Space Taxi (Concept)   LTV (American)

LTV podArm06 1966 7   Space Taxi (Concept)   LTV (American)

Images sourced from here as original pdf currently unavailable.


See related LTV Space Horse here.

See other early Teleoperators here.

See other early Lunar and Space Robots here.


1966-7 – Space Horse (Concept) – LTV (American)

1967 space horse LTV x640 1966 7   Space Horse (Concept)   LTV (American)

Space Horse – Bearing a strong resemblance to a mechanical horse in this mockup of a Maneuvering Work Platform, an open space-  going tool shop. Design work on tha platform was done under contract to the National Aeronautics and Space Administration's Marshall Spoce Flight Center at Huntsville, Ala., by LTV Aerospace Corporation's Missile and Space Division.

ltv space horse b x640 1966 7   Space Horse (Concept)   LTV (American)

ltv space horse c x640 1966 7   Space Horse (Concept)   LTV (American)

•    Ling-Temco-Vought Maneuvering Work Platform and  Space Taxi
In 1966, Ling-Temco-Vought (LTV), in conjunction with Argonne National Laboratory (ANL), completed a thorough investigation of manned maneuvering manipulator spacecrafts for the NASA Marshall Space Flight Center. The objectives of the LTV program, called the Independent Manned Manipulator (IMM) Study, were as follows
– Produce the conceptual designs and mockups of two selected IMM units which extend and enhance man's utilization in the support of AAP(Apollo Applications Program) experiments and overall areas of EVA(ExtraVehicular Activity) during future space exploration.
– Define Research, Development, and Engineering (RD&E) required to implement the IMM systems.
– Develop preliminary program definition plans which lead to flight-qualified hardware in the 1969-1971 time period.
The IMM vehicle designs were evaluated against NASA-specified criteria, and two concepts were selected for detailed analysis. the Maneuvering Work Platform (MWP) and the Space Taxi. The preliminary program definition plans were developed for obtaining the MWP flight-qualified hardware in the 1969-1971 time period and 1972-1974 for the Space Taxi.
•    MWP Configuration

 1966 7   Space Horse (Concept)   LTV (American)
The MWP configuration selected consists of four basic modules (Figure 5-17b) {RH-same as 4-11 above].
– A forward control
– An aft propulsion module
– A removable tools/spares nodule
– A collapsible cargo frame
The MWP would carry a crew of one and have a rescue capability of approximately 1 1/4 miles in any orbital direction. Its normal duration is 8 hours with a rescue contingency of 2 hours.


The Daily Messenger 22Nov1967 Space Horse x640 1966 7   Space Horse (Concept)   LTV (American)

Source: The Daily Messenger, 22 Nov 1967.

Wilmington News Journal 27Feb1968 LTV Space Horse x640 1966 7   Space Horse (Concept)   LTV (American)

Source: Wilmington News Journal, 27Feb1968


Grand_Prairie_Daily_News_Feb_25_1968

…"Studies continued toward possible use in the Apollo program of the division's [LTV Missile and Space Division] Astronaut Maneuvering Unit, the self-propelled, stabilized back pack unit designed to permit an astronaut in a pressure suit to operate like a one-man space vehicle for assembling and servicing spacecraft in orbit. The division also performed engineering design work on larger extravehicular units, including an open Maneuvering Work Platform described as a spacegoing toolshop and an enclosed version equipped with remotely-controlled manipulators for space tasks."


See other early Teleoperators here.

See other early Lunar and Space Robots here.


1966 – “The Bug” Floor Cleaning Robot from ‘The Glass Bottom Boat’ – (American)

glass bottom boat robot floor cleaner x640 1966    The Bug Floor Cleaning Robot from The Glass Bottom Boat    (American)

In the film 'The Glass Bottom Boat', the inventor Bruce Templeton (Rod Taylor) tries to impress Jennifer (Doris Day) with his "Automatic floor-cleaning" robot after dropping banana peel on the kitchen floor. It only manages to pop out of its door to arc towards the dropped banana peel and through reversed footage, arc right back into its home under the kitchen end cupboard.

glass bottom bug robot vacuum attach x640 1966    The Bug Floor Cleaning Robot from The Glass Bottom Boat    (American)

Bruce then sprinkles flour onto the floor, and the robot again pops out of its door, but this time, a telescopic tube 'nose' extends and sucks up the mess.

"We call it 'The Bug' ", says Bruce, "there'll be one in every home some day."

glass bottom bug vacuum robot 3 x640 1966    The Bug Floor Cleaning Robot from The Glass Bottom Boat    (American)

Jennifer accidentally burns the cooking, and the oven ejects the remains onto the floor, which activates 'The Bug'.

glass bottom bug vacuum robot 4 x640 1966    The Bug Floor Cleaning Robot from The Glass Bottom Boat    (American)

The rigid telescopic 'nose' transforms into a flexible tube for this scene.

glass bottom bug vacuum robot 5 x640 1966    The Bug Floor Cleaning Robot from The Glass Bottom Boat    (American)

'The Bug' returning to its 'house' with Jennifer's thong.

The Visual and Special-effects for this movie were done by J. McMillan Johnson and Carroll L. Shepphird.


This kitchen and robot appears to be inspired by RCA's Automatic Kitchen from 1959.

Note: I first became aware of this robot when researching my post on the Silent Running movie Drones where, from The Making of 'Silent Running',  Bruce Dern said,

"One of the keys to the film is the fact that are that they are not mechanical. The fact that here's a guy all by himself. He's looking at a box…… has no eyes, no mouth, no ears and yet it's alive, and there's something that I respond to as an actor, as a human being, and as a character in the film and that's what's its really all about. Somehow the fact that any little box or machine  I've always been scared of machines anyway, that can move around the floor and stuff. I saw a movie once,  "The Glass-Bottom Boat", it was terrible movie but Rod Taylor and it  had a little machine that cleaned up his kitchen, you know, that he pressed a button it came… [new part 2 from Youtube missing transition] …packing everything there and it scared the shit out of me, man. But I respected it, you know and I thought, that, well, he should talk to it, you know."


See other early remote-controlled and robotic vacuum cleaners and floor scrubbers here.


1966 – Kybernetisches Demonstrationsmodell Schildkröte – Otto von Guericke University (German)

Schildkrote 66 1 1966   Kybernetisches Demonstrationsmodell Schildkröte   Otto von Guericke University (German)

Kybernetisches Demonstrationsmodell Schildkröte
1966 Otto-von-Guericke-Universität Magdeburg

Als Ergebnis einer fast 2jährigen Arbeit der AG "Regeltechnik" im Haus der Pioniere kann ein kybernetisches Demonstrationsmodell vorgestellt. werden – die Schildkröte. Das Modell wurde bereits mehrfach ausgezeichnet. Hier Dipl.-Ing. Walther und Christine Poethke (Wilhelm-Weitling-Schule) bei der Überpfüfung der Lenkanlage der Schilkröte. (UA)
Schildkrote 66 2 1966   Kybernetisches Demonstrationsmodell Schildkröte   Otto von Guericke University (German) 
Die "Eingeweide" der Schildkröte. Sie hat 2 Fotozellen als "Augen", 2 Mikrophone als "Ohren", 2 Motoren zum Antrieb und einen Motor zur Lenkung. (UA)
——–Google Translation————
As a result of almost 2 years of work of the AG "Control systems" in the House of Pioneers, a cybernetic model presented demonstration. be – the turtle. The model has already won several awards. Here Ing. Walther and Christine Poethke (Wilhelm-Weitling-school) in the steering mechanism of Überpfüfung Schilkröte. (UA)
 
The "guts" of the turtle. She has 2 photo cells as "eyes", 2 microphones as "ears", 2 motors to drive and a motor for steering. (UA)

Original article sourced from here.