Posts Tagged ‘1965’

1965 – Telenaute ROV – (French)


The Telenaute Remote Operated Vehicle.


Manipulator arm of the Telenaute.


Movietone Newsreel Clip – hereTelenaute preparing for an underwater cave exploration.

A commercial French company, the Compagnie Generale pour le Developpement Operationel des Recherches Sousmarines, own a similar craft [to CURV] known as the Telenaute. This is capable of movement in any direction at depths up to about 1,000 m. The arm fitted to the Telenaute can handle a load of 50kg at a distance of 1.1 m. The Telenaute has a very open structure, since there is no need for an unmanned device to have a large and pressurised body. Source: Robotics – John Frederick Young – 1973.

The French Petroleum Institute (IFP -l’Institut Français de Recherches Pétrolières) built the "TELENAUTE", which is available for chartering. The "Telenaute" is a cable controlled, self propelled vehicle monitored from a control vessel on the surface. It is used for underwater search, making observations, filming and performing simple underwater operations.

See other early Underwater Robots here.

1965 – General Purpose Underwater Manipulating System Patent – Ralph K Crooks et al (American)


Publication number US3381485
Publication date 7 May 1968
Filing date 23 Oct 1965

Original Assignee Battelle Development Corp


General purpose underwater manipulating system

ABSTRACT OF THE DISCLOSURE A cable-suspended, remote-controlled manipulating device for operation underwater. The apparatus includes propulsion means, TV camera, clamping devices, manipulating arm, support feet and other devices necessary to underwater operation. Numerous components of the apparatus are preferably hydraulically actuated by a system, having a plurality of capacity or power levels. Various sensor devices are included to obtain information about underwater environment and to inform the above-water operator of the condition and activity of the apparatus. The apparatus is constructed in modules to facilitate re placement and substitution of various working devices. The command system of the device includes partial multiplexing where signals are originated by an operator and released to the underwater apparatus on a priority system with lag time within the area of human reaction time. Sensor signals and command signals are sent along common channels.

This invention relates to apparatus for underwater exploration, research, and remote controlled manipulation of various devices and tools. More particularly, it concerns a fully controlled, uninhabited apparatus provided with television and operated by a cornmand station that is preferably situated on a craft above water.

Much of the Worlds wealth and resources lie on or beneath the floor of the ocean. Under present engineering capabilities, these resources are largely inaccessible. Interest is developing, and some experiments have been conducted, in mining, farming the ocean floor, and under sea dwellings; also, there has been very active development of off-shore oil reserves throughout the world. Under to 300 fathoms of ocean water lie broad continental shelves which in themselves constitute nearly fifteen percent of the earths total surface. When these continental shelves come within the reach of man, the total area that mankind can utilize for its benefit will more than double. High pressure, the corrosive nature of sea water, and many other factors combine to make the ocean a hostile environment in which man has, to date, operated only in a limited way.

In the past, deep-sea exploration and research has been limited by mans inability to reach deep enough into the ocean and remain there long enough to accomplish given tasks. Two principal concepts of deep-sea penetration are: (1) attempts to put man deep into the ocean by scuba apparatus, hard helmets or aboard submersibles, and (2) unmanned dredges and trawls or programmed machine systems.

Recently, especially with development of improved television devices, interest has increased in remote controlled manipulators. Considerable success is being achieved in increasing the economic productivity of divers at depths exceeding 100 feet or so; nevertheless, an expanding need for remote controlled equipment to complement or supplement the work of divers is still needed. The apparatus of this invention is intended for use in the growing underwater science, to increase the knowledge in that science and for application in present common underwater operations such as general underwater observations, search, repair, salvage and other tasks requiring manipulatory functions.

A variety of remote controlled craft have been proposed and a smaller number built. In general, these have been very complex in structure but limited in function. The present invention is directed to the need for a structurally simple, but reasonably versatile, device that can operate at continental shelf depths, and deeper, and perform a variety of manual tasks. To accomplish this, a vehicle suspended by a cable from a floating vessel is preferred since cable suspension eliminates a number of complex problems inherent in a freely swimming vehicle.

Conventional remote-controlled underwater craft have usually emphasized certain functions while neglecting others. Most conventional devices have been impractical in the area of ability to orient and maintain orientation of the device with respect to tasks to be performed. Other conventional devices provide great mobility with seemingly ample controls but neglect to consider cable requirements for the large number of communication lines involved. In order to operate at increased depths, the suspension and control cables must be kept to a minimum size; otherwise, the cable weight becomes a problem, and, if the command craft is towing the underwater craft or, if the underwater craft is exposed to significant currents, cable drag becomes a prohibiting factor as depth increases.

It is accordingly an object of this invention to provide a cable suspended general purpose underwater manipulating system capable of being towed and capable of maneuvering without towing.

Another object of this invention is to provide apparatus that approaches human dexterity in manipulation while underwater and in many instances surpassing human capabilities underwater.

Another object of this invention is to provide a control system that provides communication to and from the underwater craft with a balance between the number of communication channels and the complexity of the electronic circuitry.

A further object of this invention is to provide an underwater craft that can attach itself to underwater objects and also maneuver without requiring forward motion of the craft to perform operations on objects where attachment to the underwater object is impractical.

A still further object of this invention is to provide an apparatus that requires a minimum amount of sealing from the pressure and corrosive effects of sea water.

Another object of this invention is to provide a manipulating arm so proportioned as to maximize the volume in which it can approach objects from several angles.

A further object of this invention is to provide means for moving the manipulatory elements that substantially maintain the elements in selected or set positions without the use of complicated feedback or servomechanisms.

A further object of this invention is to provide a system capable of using tools; sufficient versatility in the manipulating arm, and capacity in the command system to permit the efficient use of tools are provided without excessive weight or complexity.

A still further object of this invention is to provide, in part, a modular arrangement whereby modules may be quickly replaced or modules having varied functions may be substituted.

Still another object of this invention is to provide a propulsion means with particular attention to form,
mounting, and location so as to be ideally suited for a cable suspended craft and especially useful for the varied functions the craft is intended to perform.

Still another object of this invention is to provide an apparatus having holding and support means for attaching to and stabilizing on a work piece or work area for operation either in a horizontal or vertical position.

Another object of this invention is to provide a source of power that supplies energy to various elements at different energy levels providing for both fast-slow speed and high-low power operations.






See other early Underwater Robots here.

1965 – Diving Suit – Henry Martinez and Charles Opalek (American)


1965 – Diving Suit – Henry Martinez and Charles Opalek

Publication number    US3329967 A
Publication type    Grant
Publication date    Jul 11, 1967
Filing date    Mar 31, 1965
Priority date    Mar 31, 1965
Inventors    Martinez Henry J, Opalek Charles S
Original Assignee    Martinez Henry J, Opalek Charles S

The invention relates to diving apparatus or dress of utility especially for deep-sea diving, and relates more particularly to a novel flexible joint structure for use in such diving apparatus or dress, to give to the wearer not only complete security against pressure and leakage under extreme environmental conditions of deep-sea diving but also to ensure a high degree of mobility to the wearer by enabling the structure to change its very shape freely under all conditions and adapt itself to various configurations resulting from arm, leg, or torso movements of the wearer.




See other early Underwater Robots here.

1965 – G.E. Lifting Boom – Edwin E Ziegler / Ralph Mosher (American)

Source: Popular Mechanics, Aug 1965.

Ralph Mosher bending over the Pedipulator. Possibly Ed Ziegler in the background.

G.E. Lifting Boom

Publication number US3333716 A
Publication date Aug 1, 1967
Filing date Dec 28, 1965
Inventor: Edwin E Ziegler
Original Assignee Gen Electric

ABSTRACT OF THE DISCLOSURE A material handling device having an extensible lifting boom carried by a hoist and carriage and controlled by a handle. The carriage is mounted for rotation about vertical pivots to accomplish azimuth rotation of the boom. The azimuth motor is located in the base of the hoist and the boom is pivoted in the carriage for vertical movement. A hydraulic cylinder mounted between the boom and carriage imparts vertical movement to the boom and an extensible cylinder causes the extensible boom to extend or retract. In each motion there is spatial correspondence between the control element and boom tip and also a diminished force is fed back by lever systems from the boom to the control handle to give feel.

My invention relates to a hydraulically operated boom. This invention relates particularly to a hydraulic boom having return feel and has correspondence of movement between a control handle and the boom in azimuth and elevation. The apparatus will be described particularly in relation to a boom but is understood to be equally adapted to remote control of devices such as guns, power shovels or any other extended member wherein the characteristics of this invention are important.

In the movements of objects, it is a common occurrence that one wishes to move an object under load. When one wishes to move some object against a force of some sort, it is advantageous to have a feel in the control handle or shaft which corresponds to the amount of force put forth in overcoming the resistance to such movement. It is further advantageous if there is a spatial correspondence between the control handle and the object being moved. If both feel and spatial correspondence are present in the apparatus, the operators situation is most analogous to his physically moving the load. In prior art machines where these characteristics are absent, the operator must spend time to learn a new set of relationships between movement and feel of the control handle and the movement of the load.

A chief object of the present invention is to provide a lifting boom having a return feel which is a small portion of the force being exerted and having a spatial correspondence between the boom and the control handle. With my invention, the operator can position the load with deftness and accuracy.

Another object of this invention is to provide a system adaptable to control any device pivoted for universal movement.

Another object is to provide a compact easily controllable system for hoisting loads wherein the operators control movements are the same as he would use in physically moving the load. Thus in an emergency the operators spontaneous reactions are most likely to be correct.

Another object of my invention is to provide a device capable of doing the work of one or more men with corresponding less work and fatigue to the operator.

Another object of this invention is to provide a single control element or actuator for operating a plurality of operating motors in conjunction to accomplish the single purpose of moving an object about a pivot.

These and other objects will be more readily perceived from my description which follows.

Briefly stated, my invention is a control device which operates to move any extended member about a pivot in azimuth or vertically and to change the length of the extended member. The movements of the extended member correspond in direction to the movements of the single control member. In addition, some of the force applied to the extended member is fed to the control member to give it feel. Thus the extended member moves in the direction of motion of the control member and some of the force applied to the extended member is fed to the control member. In this way the operator will know the direction of motion of the extended member and will have an idea of the amount of force being applied to the extended member.

Mosher’s future concepts of his CAMS concept included options for the Boom.

See other GE CAMS here:

GE yes man robot life28may56p125 x80 1969   GE Walking Truck   Ralph Mosher (American)1956- GE Yes Man
Mosher ge handyman Hula x80 1969   GE Walking Truck   Ralph Mosher (American)1958-9- GE Handyman – Ralph Mosher
Pedipulator  Walker S MFeb63 x80 1969   GE Walking Truck   Ralph Mosher (American)1962 – GE Pedipulator – Ralph Mosher
GE Walking Truck Mosher x80 Early Teleoperators, Exoskeletons and Industrial Robots1969 – GE Walking Truck – Ralph Mosher
Man Mate PopSciDec1969 x80 1969   GE Walking Truck   Ralph Mosher (American)1969- GE Man-Mate Industrial manipulator

See other early Teleoperators here.


1940 onwards – Miscellaneous Lunar and Off World Rovers with Manipulators Concepts

Most of the unmanned Lunar and Martian rover concepts were designed to use manipulator arms for sampling rocks and surface material.

a schoenherr crawler type 2-x640

John Schoenherr’s (1935-2010) fabulous Moon Crawler painting pictured above, which he painted in 1961 for the cover of Analog magazine that year. Source: Project SWORD

b schoenherr crawler type 3-x640  c_Schoenherr_1964 bill b Crawler-x640  imai space attack unti moon crawler art-x640 Imai Space Base 4 Noppin-x640

moon crawler sword annual-1969-x640


S.W.O.R.D. images sourced from projectsword.


Moon tractor from the children’s book “A Rocket Trip to the Moon”, Golden Press 1970. Sourced from dreamsofspace.


Artwork by Ed Valigursky, from the French edition LIFE’s MAN AND SPACE book. Edition date unknown, original English edition 1964.


A depiction of unmanned moon crawlers originally for the Surveyor program. The crawler on the right-hand side is actually the Sperry luna crawler. Above image from Hobby magazine no.3 1962.



More Lunar explorer toys.


“The Road to the Moon is Ready” by Nikolay Kolchitsky. Illustration for the Tekhnika Molodezhi magazine, 1956. Source: here.


Illustration for the Tekhnika Molodezhi magazine.


Illustration from Première Croisière Sur La Lune by Fletcher Pratt, 1952.


From 1971 Japan Space Encyclopedia.

1974Thenext50yearsonthemoon03-x640 1974Thenext50yearsonthemoon04-x640 lunar-surveyor-vehicle-concept-sketch-x640

NASA Lunar Survey Vehicle conceptual illustration, 1988.


Solar-powered rover with mechanical arms.


Above: Prediction of life on the moon c1965. Illustration from the book Station “Moon” (Stantsiia “Luna”) (1965) .


Above: Later prediction of life on the moon c1974

For large images of the above two Russian illustrations, see here.

Off World Rover illustrations


Illustration by Frank R. Paul, Fantastic Adventure, 1940.


Martian Rover samplers.


See othe Lunar Walkers here.

See other early Space Teleoperators here.

See other early Lunar and Space Robots here.