Posts Tagged ‘1965’

1965 – Diving Suit – Henry Martinez and Charles Opalek (American)


1965 – Diving Suit – Henry Martinez and Charles Opalek

Publication number    US3329967 A
Publication type    Grant
Publication date    Jul 11, 1967
Filing date    Mar 31, 1965
Priority date    Mar 31, 1965
Inventors    Martinez Henry J, Opalek Charles S
Original Assignee    Martinez Henry J, Opalek Charles S

The invention relates to diving apparatus or dress of utility especially for deep-sea diving, and relates more particularly to a novel flexible joint structure for use in such diving apparatus or dress, to give to the wearer not only complete security against pressure and leakage under extreme environmental conditions of deep-sea diving but also to ensure a high degree of mobility to the wearer by enabling the structure to change its very shape freely under all conditions and adapt itself to various configurations resulting from arm, leg, or torso movements of the wearer.




See other early Underwater Robots here.

1965 – G.E. Lifting Boom – Edwin E Ziegler / Ralph Mosher (American)

Source: Popular Mechanics, Aug 1965.

Ralph Mosher bending over the Pedipulator. Possibly Ed Ziegler in the background.

G.E. Lifting Boom

Publication number US3333716 A
Publication date Aug 1, 1967
Filing date Dec 28, 1965
Inventor: Edwin E Ziegler
Original Assignee Gen Electric

ABSTRACT OF THE DISCLOSURE A material handling device having an extensible lifting boom carried by a hoist and carriage and controlled by a handle. The carriage is mounted for rotation about vertical pivots to accomplish azimuth rotation of the boom. The azimuth motor is located in the base of the hoist and the boom is pivoted in the carriage for vertical movement. A hydraulic cylinder mounted between the boom and carriage imparts vertical movement to the boom and an extensible cylinder causes the extensible boom to extend or retract. In each motion there is spatial correspondence between the control element and boom tip and also a diminished force is fed back by lever systems from the boom to the control handle to give feel.

My invention relates to a hydraulically operated boom. This invention relates particularly to a hydraulic boom having return feel and has correspondence of movement between a control handle and the boom in azimuth and elevation. The apparatus will be described particularly in relation to a boom but is understood to be equally adapted to remote control of devices such as guns, power shovels or any other extended member wherein the characteristics of this invention are important.

In the movements of objects, it is a common occurrence that one wishes to move an object under load. When one wishes to move some object against a force of some sort, it is advantageous to have a feel in the control handle or shaft which corresponds to the amount of force put forth in overcoming the resistance to such movement. It is further advantageous if there is a spatial correspondence between the control handle and the object being moved. If both feel and spatial correspondence are present in the apparatus, the operators situation is most analogous to his physically moving the load. In prior art machines where these characteristics are absent, the operator must spend time to learn a new set of relationships between movement and feel of the control handle and the movement of the load.

A chief object of the present invention is to provide a lifting boom having a return feel which is a small portion of the force being exerted and having a spatial correspondence between the boom and the control handle. With my invention, the operator can position the load with deftness and accuracy.

Another object of this invention is to provide a system adaptable to control any device pivoted for universal movement.

Another object is to provide a compact easily controllable system for hoisting loads wherein the operators control movements are the same as he would use in physically moving the load. Thus in an emergency the operators spontaneous reactions are most likely to be correct.

Another object of my invention is to provide a device capable of doing the work of one or more men with corresponding less work and fatigue to the operator.

Another object of this invention is to provide a single control element or actuator for operating a plurality of operating motors in conjunction to accomplish the single purpose of moving an object about a pivot.

These and other objects will be more readily perceived from my description which follows.

Briefly stated, my invention is a control device which operates to move any extended member about a pivot in azimuth or vertically and to change the length of the extended member. The movements of the extended member correspond in direction to the movements of the single control member. In addition, some of the force applied to the extended member is fed to the control member to give it feel. Thus the extended member moves in the direction of motion of the control member and some of the force applied to the extended member is fed to the control member. In this way the operator will know the direction of motion of the extended member and will have an idea of the amount of force being applied to the extended member.

Mosher’s future concepts of his CAMS concept included options for the Boom.

See other GE CAMS here:

GE yes man robot life28may56p125 x80 1969   GE Walking Truck   Ralph Mosher (American)1956- GE Yes Man
Mosher ge handyman Hula x80 1969   GE Walking Truck   Ralph Mosher (American)1958-9- GE Handyman – Ralph Mosher
Pedipulator  Walker S MFeb63 x80 1969   GE Walking Truck   Ralph Mosher (American)1962 – GE Pedipulator – Ralph Mosher
GE Walking Truck Mosher x80 Early Teleoperators, Exoskeletons and Industrial Robots1969 – GE Walking Truck – Ralph Mosher
Man Mate PopSciDec1969 x80 1969   GE Walking Truck   Ralph Mosher (American)1969- GE Man-Mate Industrial manipulator

See other early Teleoperators here.


1940 onwards – Miscellaneous Lunar and Off World Rovers with Manipulators Concepts

Most of the unmanned Lunar and Martian rover concepts were designed to use manipulator arms for sampling rocks and surface material.

a schoenherr crawler type 2-x640

John Schoenherr’s (1935-2010) fabulous Moon Crawler painting pictured above, which he painted in 1961 for the cover of Analog magazine that year. Source: Project SWORD

b schoenherr crawler type 3-x640  c_Schoenherr_1964 bill b Crawler-x640  imai space attack unti moon crawler art-x640 Imai Space Base 4 Noppin-x640

moon crawler sword annual-1969-x640


S.W.O.R.D. images sourced from projectsword.


Moon tractor from the children’s book “A Rocket Trip to the Moon”, Golden Press 1970. Sourced from dreamsofspace.


Artwork by Ed Valigursky, from the French edition LIFE’s MAN AND SPACE book. Edition date unknown, original English edition 1964.


A depiction of unmanned moon crawlers originally for the Surveyor program. The crawler on the right-hand side is actually the Sperry luna crawler. Above image from Hobby magazine no.3 1962.



More Lunar explorer toys.


“The Road to the Moon is Ready” by Nikolay Kolchitsky. Illustration for the Tekhnika Molodezhi magazine, 1956. Source: here.


Illustration for the Tekhnika Molodezhi magazine.


Illustration from Première Croisière Sur La Lune by Fletcher Pratt, 1952.


From 1971 Japan Space Encyclopedia.

1974Thenext50yearsonthemoon03-x640 1974Thenext50yearsonthemoon04-x640 lunar-surveyor-vehicle-concept-sketch-x640

NASA Lunar Survey Vehicle conceptual illustration, 1988.


Solar-powered rover with mechanical arms.


Above: Prediction of life on the moon c1965. Illustration from the book Station “Moon” (Stantsiia “Luna”) (1965) .


Above: Later prediction of life on the moon c1974

For large images of the above two Russian illustrations, see here.

Off World Rover illustrations


Illustration by Frank R. Paul, Fantastic Adventure, 1940.


Martian Rover samplers.


See othe Lunar Walkers here.

See other early Space Teleoperators here.

See other early Lunar and Space Robots here.

1965 onwards – Miscellaneous Lunar and Off World Walker Concepts


4-Legged robot space explorer.


Robot Rescuing an Astronaut on the Lunar Surface. Robot reminiscent of Odex-1.


Legged robot turning a valve.


Model Lunar walker from the French children's book "Permieres Vacances Sur La Lune" [“First Vacation on the Moon”], Marc Heimer – 1967.


Above: Prediction of life on the moon c1965. Illustration from the book Station "Moon" (Stantsiia "Luna") (1965) .


Above: Later prediction of life on the moon c1974

For large images of the above two Russian illustrations, see here.

Off World Walker illustrations


A. Leonov, A. Sokolov  c1965
"Automatic rover on Titan , Saturn's moon ". A novel rolling-wheel propulsion whereby the trailing wheel segment pushes down rolling the rover forwards, then retracts and the next segment repeats the action. There are stabilizing skis on the vehicle.

Leonov-Sokolov-Pluto-67 (2)

A giant walking capsule or  rover on Pluto. Illustration by A. Leonov and A. Sokolov – "Pluto". PREPARATION PRECAUTIONS from  a postcard "Wait for us , the stars" , 1967 (Soviet).


Off-world walker. From Soviet magazine dated 1969. Most likely illustrated by A. Leonov and A. Sokolov

Marsohod concept – 1976

Marsohod-x640 sokolov_mars_cherez_peschanuju_reku-x640

Above illustration painted by A. Sokolov.


Source: here.

See othe Lunar Walkers here.

See other early Space Teleoperators here.

See other early Lunar and Space Robots here.

1965-8 – Space Pod – 2001: A Space Odyssey – Clarke (British) / Kubrick (American)

EVA Pod – The EVA Pod is a fictional spacecraft used for extra-vehicular activity seen in the movie 2001: A Space Odyssey. The Jupiter spacecraft Discovery One carries three of these small, one-man maintenance vehicles.

[EVA – Extra-Vehicular Activity i.e. activity outside of the prime space vehicle.]

Film stage.

Detail of manipulator arms. Illustrations by Simon Atkinson.

It has always intrigued me as to why the manipulator arms were designed they way they were i.e. a pair of forearms on each arm. Practically one can only use a single arm/gripper at one time. In most scenes featuring the pod in action, only one arm/gripper are used at any one  time.

I feel the reason may be that, for large objects, the paired forearms act as a large gripper in itself. For the film, it may have been designed this way as the only practical means of recovering Poole's body, as seen in the two images below.

Fred Ordway III was the key technical consultant for Stanley Kubrick's sci-fi masterpiece "2001: A Space Odyssey" .

A lucky moment came in January 1965, as Ordway explained in a book, "2001: A Space Odyssey in Retrospect." He was in New York to meet with publishers for a book he and a colleague, Harry H.K. Lange, had written and illustrated about future life in space. He learned that his friend, Arthur Clarke, a British science writer, was in town and so requested they meet. During their discussion about the space program and Wernher von Braun, they learned each was developing story themes in common.

Clarke happened to be working with Stanley Kubrick on a screenplay for Space Odyssey, which was based on Clarke's earlier work, "The Sentinel." Ordway and Lange's book "Intelligence in the Universe", co-authored by Roger A. MacGowan of the Army Computation Center in Huntsville was essentially the same concept: man facing the immensity of the universe and that life may exist out among the stars.

They showed Clarke their artwork and talked more before adjourning for other engagements. Before leaving the club, Ordway got an unexpected call. It was Kubrick, whom Clarke had notified immediately after his meeting with Ordway and Lange. From then on he was engaged as Kubrick's technical consultant on space issues.

Footnote: August 2014:  Sadly, Fred Ordway passed away on July 1, 2014, aged 87. A Harvard graduate and a former NASA scientist for the Saturn V rocket, he had an unquenchable thirst for learning about the universe and excelled as an educator, researcher, consultant and author..

Front Elevation.

Side Elevation: Illustrations by Simon Atkinson.

Robert McCall's promotional film poster.

Stanley Kubrick on set with the Pods.

Portrait of Arthur C. Clarke.

Nemean's Space Pod design as described in Clarke's earlier short stories such as ‘Who’s There?’ and ‘Summertime on Icarus’ is much more of a stubby cylinder.

Space Pod Specification: Sourced from here.


Title: Grumman DC-5 EVA Craft
Number Produced:  45
14 for Space Station Five,
11 for Space Station Four
7 for Space Station Three***
5 Replacement vehicles
4 test vehicles
3 for Discovery One
1 Replica**
1 for Discovery Prototype
Mass at Earth Gravity: 1,387 Kg.
Overall Diameter: 1.98 m.
Capacity: One Person Standard; Three Person Emergency
Propulsion systems: Ten Mk 12 (140 Kgs. Thrust) for major course changes along all axes; Eight Mk 17 (35 Kgs. Thrust) for precision maneuvers; Eight Mk 8 micro-thrusters (10 Kgs.) for low-gravity station-keeping; Five Mk 14 (80 Kgs. Thrust)  provide roll; One Mk 37 (500 Kgs. Thrust) for use in emergency.
Life Support: 12 Hrs. (One Person)
Radar: Grumman EPS-2D; Long Range; Active Pulse
Other Equipment: Explosive Bolt Door Separation*; Short-range Object Approach System and Transponder; Complete HAL 9000 Data link System; Automatic Thruster Control; Auto Hover; Eight-Channel communication system; Advanced Manipulator Control System; Two-hour Oxygen Reserve System.
Notes: The Grumman DC-5 carries can carry little in the way of food and water stocks, due to short life support capacity. A single air conditioning vent is provided.
Misc. Technical Information: (From Frederick Ordway and the British Interplanetary Association)
Propulsion: A subliming solid system provides vernier propulsion, wherein the solid propellent sublimes at a constant pressure and is emitted from a nozzle. Such reaction jets will last for long periods of time, have great reliability and use no mechanical valves. The main propulsion system is powered from by storable liquids.
Mechanical Hand Controls: Selection controls are placed on each side so that the appropriate hand must be removed from the manipulator to select a tool or to park. Selection of a tool returns the arm to the 'park' position, where it leaves the 'hand', then the arm goes to the appropriate tool and plugs in. In doing so, it inhibits the 'finger' controls on the manipulator, so that when the operator returns his hand into the glove he can only move a solid object, not individual fingers.
Television: It was found possible to produce all-round TV coverage with eight fixed cameras. This, however, did not give a sufficiently accurate picture for docking or selecting a landing space. For this purpose, the field of view can be narrowed or orientated; controls are included for this purpose.
Normally, the TV link is occupied by the internal camera, so that the parent craft can monitor the pod interior. The pilot can switch in any other camera for specific purposes (survey, etc.) reverting to interior camera for normal work.
Proximity Detector: This is the safety system with omnidirectional coverage working from the main communication aerials. It gives audible warning when the pod approaches a solid object. This is necessary as a safety measure as the pilot cannot monitor seven or eight TV displays continuously. The system also detects an approach to an object, the speed of which is too high to be counteracted by the vernier thrust settings on the control system. In this event, full reverse thrust is applied, overriding the manual control setting. The system depends upon a frequency modulated transmission and under safe conditions results in a low, soft audible background signal. This continuous signal is considered necessary in order to provide a continuous check on a vital safety system. If the speed of an approach to an object becomes dangerous compared with the distance from it, the tone becomes louder and higher pitched, and, if unchecked, end in a shrill note accompanied by reverse thrust. The system also works in conjunction with a transponder (to the give the necessary increased range) to measure distance from the Discovery.
Flying Controls: Manual controls are considered necessary both as a standby and for local maneuvers. Two hand control sticks, each with two degrees of freedom and fitted with twist grips, provide the necessary control about six axes.
Analog information is presented for attitude, heading rate and distance; these can be referred to local ground (for landing, takeoff, etc.), course (which enables the pilot to face forward, head up, on any preselected course, or parent ship (for docking, local maneuvers, etc.) This data has to be presented, as the pilot has to act immediately on them. This is the most easily assimilated display. A variation in full scale rate, which can be applied by the control sticks, is included; this allows the full stick movements to result in any proportion of vernier motor thrust, thus giving a 'fine' control for local maneuvers.

*When I think about it, I don't think the door ever separated from the pod. It seems that it was simply opened extremely quickly by the explosive bolts. If the door actually WAS blown off, it would have smashed into the airlock's outer door; breaking into several pieces. This would fly back towards Dave, and as many people would put it, that would be a very bad thing.
**This is non-operational, and do not carry any functional systems. The single replica is currently on display at the NASM's "21st Century Space Flight" display.
***Earlier Space Stations are not capable of supporting the design.

Interior of the Pod.

Pre-production sketches.

See other early Space Teleoperators here.

See other early Lunar and Space Robots here.