Posts Tagged ‘1899’

1899 – Walking Wheel – James C. Anderson (American)

1899 – Walking Wheel patent by James C. Anderson


Publication number    US647245 A
Publication type    Grant
Publication date    Apr 10, 1900
Filing date    Aug 16, 1899
Priority date    Aug 16, 1899
Inventors    James C Anderson
Original Assignee    James C Anderson

My invention relates to certain new and useful improvements in wheels for use upon vehicles propelled on roadways by mechanical power, and particularly to that class known as "autotrucks," which are designed for carrying heavy loads.

In the use of wheels upon vehicles propelled by animal motive force it is well understood that the area of traction is the tangential contact between the periphery of the tire multiplied by its width, and the tangential contact is governed entirely by the physical character of the material of which the tire is composed. This contact is of course lessened when the profile or inequalities of the roadbed transverse to the path of the wheel are such that only a portion of the width ot the tire comes in contact with the road.

In a vehicle drawn by animal motive force the traction area of the wheel is of comparatively little moment, because the anatomical movements of the animal compensate for the small degree of traction in the vehicle. In other words, in such cases the wheel constitutes a lever to which the physical power of the draft-animal is applied, and nature, recognizing these conditions, has so constructed the hoofs of draft-animals that in contact with a road way a comparatively-large area of traction is secured. For instance, this traction area with the hoof of an ordinary horse is about thirty square inches, while in a tire, say, two inches wide and composed of resilient material, such as rubber, and assuming that the tire flattens to half an inch, the total area of traction would be but one inch. The articulative joints also of the legs of the animal are such that the hoofs accommodate themselves to the uneven surface of the road to maintain the necessary area of contact, and such contact is preserved in the case of each hoof until the animal has moved forward a distance equal to one step or stride, and hence the push on the traction area is maintained to a similar extent, and thus it is that with this large amount of traction and the toggle action of the legs of a horse he is enabled to draw a heavy load. It has been the recognition of this principle in the application of the physical force of an animal that in the coustruction of autotruck-wheels they have been devised with excessively wide and resilient tires in order to secure as much traction as possible; but the limit in the width of tires of this kind is such, owing to their weight and cost, that a sufficient amount of traction cannot be secured for the best results.


Each leg had a pneumatic piston acting as a damper over bumps and irregular ground.

See other early Walking Wheels and  Walking Machines here.

Tags: , , , ,

1899 – EN L’AN 2000 Remote-Controlled Electric Floor Scrubber – Jean-Marc Côté (French)

The maid remote-controlling the electric floor scrubber.

France in the Year 2000 (XXI century) – a series of futuristic pictures by Jean-Marc Côté in France in 1899. Originally in the form of paper cards enclosed in cigarette/cigar boxes, the images depicted the world as it was imagined to be like in the year 2000.

Isaac Asimov's Futuredays is a card-by-card analysis of these retro-futuristic artifacts and does a wonderful job of putting them into historical context for modern readers.

A note by Christopher Hyde from the book by Isaac Asimov – Futuredays.

"The cards were created for the 1900 fin-de-siècle festivities held throughout France that year.  They were commissioned by the firm Armand Gervais et cie, Lyon, a small toy manufacturer specializing in novelties. The illustrator, Jean Marc Côté, was a local commercial artist who was often hired by Armand Gervais on a freelance basis. Using existing from a variety of sources, including  the illustrated works of Jules Verne, as well as some of the bizarre automaton equipment at Armand Gervais, Côté began designing the cards. The entre set of engravings was delivered to Armand Gervais during the summer of 1899, and production began immediately. …
Late in 1899, Armand Gervais discontinued operations as a result of the  death of its founder. The cards, neatly printed and ready to go, were never distributed."

See other early remote-controlled and robotic vacuum cleaners and floor scrubbers here.


Tags: , , , , , , , ,