1919 – Diver’s Armored Suit – Victor Campos (Spanish / American)

campos dive suit by jason clark x640 1919   Divers Armored Suit   Victor Campos (Spanish / American)

1919 – Diver's Armored Suit by Victor Campos. Rendering by Jason Clark


campos divers suit pat 1919   Divers Armored Suit   Victor Campos (Spanish / American)

Diver's suit
Publication number    US1414174 A
Publication type    Grant
Publication date    Apr 25, 1922
Filing date    Jul 17, 1919
Priority date    Jul 17, 1919
Inventors    Victor Campos
Original Assignee    Victor Campos

1. A diver's suit of a non-flexible pressure resisting material having members connected with each other by a leak-proof joint, the joint comprising two parts, of which one part is provided with a recess containing a liquid and the other part is provided with a flange fitting into the said recess with its end spaced from the bottom of the recess and bearing against the said liquid.
2. A dlver's suit of non-flexible pressure resisting material having members connected with each other by a joint, the joint comprising two parts of which one is provided with an annular recess containing a liquid, and the other part is provided with an annular flange fitting into the said recess and bearing against the said liquid, the said flange having inner and outer packing rings, and means holding the said flange part in position on the said recessed part and the said parts on the body.
3. In a divers' suit; a body, a limb, and a joint for connecting the limb thereto, said joint consisting of a flanged member having an annular recess-containing a liquid, a flange on the member and fitting in the recess with its end spaced from the bottom of the recess and bearing on the liquid, a retaining ring engaging the flanges of the limb and member, and bolts passing through the ring and flange of the member into the body.


The suit is not known to have been made.


See other early Underwater Robots here.


1917 – Diving Armor Suit – Benjamin Franklin Leavitt (American)

Leavitt dive suit 1917 x640 1917   Diving Armor Suit   Benjamin Franklin Leavitt (American)

The 1917 version of the Leavitt deep-sea suit.


leavitt pat 1 x640 1917   Diving Armor Suit   Benjamin Franklin Leavitt (American)

leavitt pat 2 x640 1917   Diving Armor Suit   Benjamin Franklin Leavitt (American)

Publication number    US1327679 A
Publication type    Grant
Publication date    Jan 13, 1920
Filing date    Jan 15, 1917
Priority date    Jan 15, 1917
Inventors    Leavitt Benjamin F
Original Assignee    Leavitt Diving Armor Company

The invention relates to improvements in diving apparatus and its object is to provide a diving armor designed to permit a diver to descend to depths where the hydrostatic pressure is comparatively great, and which will allow sufficient use and freedom of motion of the limbs, hands and feet to permit working at such depths.

Other objects are to facilitate the assembling and taking apart of the sections comprising the armor; to efficiently protect the electrical connections; to render the supporting cable and electrical connections quick-detachable from the armor; and to provide a safe air supply system that will eliminate hose connections to the surface.

leavitt psaug22 x640 1917   Diving Armor Suit   Benjamin Franklin Leavitt (American)

life blakeley leavitt x640 1917   Diving Armor Suit   Benjamin Franklin Leavitt (American)

The object to the left of the image is Leavitt's other invention, the deep-sea electric lamp. See US patent number US1611651.


Popular Scienceaug1922 leavitt 2 x640 1917   Diving Armor Suit   Benjamin Franklin Leavitt (American)

Multiple Leavitt suits being manufactured.

Source: Popular Science, August 1922.


PSKR453 leavitt x640 1917   Diving Armor Suit   Benjamin Franklin Leavitt (American)

A frontal view of the Leavitt all-metal deep water diving suit. The only connection with the surface is a special steel cable by which the diver is lowered and raised. This cable has in its core a telephone circuit which permits the diver to maintain vocal communications with person on the salvage craft. This particular suit is equipped with heavy rubbers gloves which could be used up to 150 feet. At greater depths the suit would be fitted with pincers or tongs operated from within sleeves of the armor.
Source: here.

The Bridgeport Telegram May 23 1922  Leavitt x640 1917   Diving Armor Suit   Benjamin Franklin Leavitt (American)

The Brooklyn Daily Eagle Mar 28 1926 leavitt 2 x640 1917   Diving Armor Suit   Benjamin Franklin Leavitt (American)

The Brooklyn Daily Eagle Mar 28 1926 leavitt x640 1917   Diving Armor Suit   Benjamin Franklin Leavitt (American)


deep sea 1936 italian 7 x640 1917   Diving Armor Suit   Benjamin Franklin Leavitt (American)

Source: www.hdsitalia.org


goodman leavitt pewabic 1920 x640 1917   Diving Armor Suit   Benjamin Franklin Leavitt (American)

Diving Armor Suit used in salvaging the Pewabic..

Image and text source: The Sun and The New York Herald,  May 9, 1920.

Only Woman Salvager Regains Riches From Lakes and Sea.

Mrs. Margaret Campbell Goodman

….
Always a Dreamer
"I was always a dreamer," she says, "and I can hardly remember when I first began to dream that there was a fortune in deep sea salvage. The reality came when I became interested in a suit of diving armor. I was one of twenty-six who saw experiments with it, where the inventor demonstrated in Grand Traverse Bay, Michigan. Its possibilities by descending 361 feet and remaining under water forty-five minutes.
"This first deep sea suit had no strut rods. A commercial tube was used that was covered with diving suit cloth and the armored diver was raised and lowered by a manila rope. The armor had a helmet, equipped so the diver was in constant communication with the ship above him, but in this first successful descent the telephone was not detachable and the telephone line was a separate cable. The safety valve was at the bottom of the caustic soda cartridge. Air was not pumped down to the diver, but furnished from a tank and sent in a continuous current after being breathed through the soda cartridge and thus cleansed of carbonic gas. The diver could remain down for the life of this soda cartridge, about an hour.
"The improved armor has strut rods and a special interlocked, tapered, very flexible tube made of copper braided with wire covered with pure gum rubber. The raising cable is of steel with the telephone in the centre, and is connected directly to the helmet. The phone bracket is screwed into the helmet and is detachable. The glasses are one-half-inch smaller than in the first model and the frontal light is tipped to an angle of 30 degrees. The armor is fastened together at the breast and shoulders with bayonet lock and the arm tubes are detachable from the shoulders." ….


See other early Underwater Robots here.


1917 – Submarine Armor – Charles H. Jackson (American)

psfeb23 jackson 1 x640 1917   Submarine Armor   Charles H. Jackson (American)

Submarine Armor invented by Charles H. Jackson achieved a depth of 360 feet in December 1919 with Frank Turner as the diver.

images.britishpathe.comu1 x640 1917   Submarine Armor   Charles H. Jackson (American)

images.britishpathe.comu2 x640 1917   Submarine Armor   Charles H. Jackson (American)

images.britishpathe.comu3 x640 1917   Submarine Armor   Charles H. Jackson (American)

images.britishpathe.comu4 x640 1917   Submarine Armor   Charles H. Jackson (American)

images.britishpathe.comu5 x640 1917   Submarine Armor   Charles H. Jackson (American)

images.britishpathe.comu6 x640 1917   Submarine Armor   Charles H. Jackson (American)

images.britishpathe.comu7 x640 1917   Submarine Armor   Charles H. Jackson (American)
Deep Sea Suits and Diving Records       Source: Scientific American (January 1920)
There appears to be no little rivalry of late in the matter of diving suits and deep sea diving records. And why not? Five years, more or less, of intense warfare directed against merchant shipping has paved the bottom of the sea with many valuable cargoes which await the deep sea diver. Recently John T. Turner of Philadelphia, Pa., a diver of international repute, went down 360 feet and reached the bed of the ocean 15 miles east of Graves Light, near Boston, Mas. For this test he wore a diving suit invented by a colored mechanic, Charles H. Jackson, who is shown standing to the left of the diver, in the accompanying photograph. While this feat was proclaimed a world's record, a glance through our records discloses the interesting fact that it is still one foot less than a previous record. In a demonstration in Grand Traverse Bay, Michigan, during October, 1916, B. F. Leavitt descended to a depth of 361 feet in a new diving armor of which he is the inventor, and remained under for 45 minutes. In the Leavitt suit the diver has little difficulty with the joints, and it is claimed that recent improvements have made it more or less proof from “freezing,” or binding. A telephone in the helmet permits the diver to keep in constant communication with the men aboard the ship, and to direct their efforts, it being understood that the diver can do little physical work while at that depth and clad in such armor. His function is more one of directing operations carried on by machinery. Both the Jackson and Leavitt diving suits have much in common and it will be interesting to note how they are applied in actual salvaging operations.

psfeb23 jackson 2 x640 1917   Submarine Armor   Charles H. Jackson (American)

diver suit pmfeb1920p165 x640 1917   Submarine Armor   Charles H. Jackson (American)

Source: Popular Mechanics, Feb 1920.


charles h jackson 1919 x591 1917   Submarine Armor   Charles H. Jackson (American)

Charles H. Jackson c1919. Source: here.

Although some press articles mention that Jackson patented his armor, I've been unable to locate any such patent. However, I did locate a Canadian patent for a diving helmet,

jackson pat CA177249 1917   Submarine Armor   Charles H. Jackson (American)

(12) Patent:     (11) CA 177249
(54) English Title:     DIVING ARMOUR

(72) Inventors (Country):     

JACKSON, CHARLES (United States of America)
JACKSON, HENRIETTE MINNIE (United States of America)

(45) Issued:     1917-05-22
(22) Filed Date:     1917-03-26


See other early Underwater Robots here.


1918 – Submarine Armor – Josef Kamieniecki (Russian/American)

1918 KAMIENIECKI sub armor pat2 1918   Submarine Armor   Josef Kamieniecki (Russian/American)

1918 KAMIENIECKI sub armor pat1 1918   Submarine Armor   Josef Kamieniecki (Russian/American)

Publication number    US1370590 A
Publication type    Grant
Publication date    Mar 8, 1921
Filing date    Dec 2, 1918
Priority date    Dec 2, 1918
Inventors    Josef Kamieniecki
Original Assignee    Josef Kamieniecki

This invention relates to submarine or diving armor, and more particularly to a metal sectional armor of this type which by reason ot its strength and rigidity is particularly adapted for use in deep sea diving, and an object of the invention is to provide a metal submarine armor which is flexible at its joints or connections under actual working conditions in order to enable the diver, when incased in the armor to have ready use of his arms, hands and legs for performing his necessary duties.

A further object of the invention is to provide a submarine armor as specified, in which the air circulating system embodies a valve casing carried at the rear end of the helmet of the armor, which casing has an inlet chamber and an exhaust chamber with the passage of air therethrough being controlled by flap valves, so as to prevent the passage of exhaled air into the inlet compartment and also to provide a valve mechanism in the said casing whereby the air may be cut off, in case the hose becomes broken, to prevent the flooding of the interior of the armor, and further to provide a relatively small electric fan carried by the armor and having its exhaust arranged for passage into the exhaust or exhaling chamber of the said valve casing, to create an air suction through the armor and maintain fresh and clean air within the helmet of the armor at all times, by drawing the used or exhaled air into the exhaust or exhaling compartment and forcing it outwardly through the outlet or exhaling tube of the ventilating system.

A further object of the invention is to provide means in connection with the submarine armor as specified, which will permit the diver to rise through the water, independently of the usual type of joint employed for this purpose, which means include a propeller and a suitable prime mover therefor, the operation of which is controlled by the operation of a switch at the front of the body portion of the armor, whereby the diver can, at any desired time, operate the switch to permit the operation of the propeller to force him upwardly through the water.

A still further object of the invention is to provide an armor as specified in which the arm and leg inclosing sections are detachably connected to the body section to permit their quick and easy removal or disconnection irom the body to facilitate the placing of the suit upon a diver and also to provide easily operated means for connecting these sections to the body section by fluid tight joints.

No evidence to date has been found that would indicate that this suit was built.

It would take until 1978 when the WASP, similar in design to the JIM suit except that below the waist it has a glass reinforced plastic cylinder in place of articulated legs, that we would see small multi-directional thrusters, controlled by foot pedals within the cylinder, giving the WASP more mobility. Although the developers of the JIM suit experimented with a thruster-pack earlier, the WASP was the first suit to successfully apply thrusters, allowing the ADS a mid-water capability not present before.


See other early Underwater Robots here.


1916 – Submarine Armor – William S. Boyd (American)

boyd armor arms pat 1 1916   Submarine Armor   William S. Boyd (American)

Essentially an armored glove, converting the operator's hand into a pair of pliers.

boyd patent 1916 1916   Submarine Armor   William S. Boyd (American)

Publication number    US1198611 A
Publication type    Grant
Publication date    Sep 19, 1916
Filing date    Feb 11, 1916
Priority date    Feb 11, 1916
Inventors    William S Boyd
Original Assignee    William S Boyd

This invention relates to submarine armor for the use of divers, and particularly to that class of armor which is composed of sections of rigid material united by watertight joints, and especially to those portions of the armor adapted to inclose and protect the hand of the operator.

An example of the kind of armor referred to is to be found in Letters Patent of the United States No. 989,530, issued April 11th, 1911, to C. E. MacDuffee, and the invention which is the subject matter of this application may be considered in a general sense as an improvement upon the device described in that patent. In that device, the means provided for the operator to employ in grasping an object consists of a pair of tongs terminating in inwardly turned hook members projecting from a sleeve and adapted to be oscillated on a common pivot by means of a longitudinal handle passing through the end of and into the sleeve and adapted to be moved longitudinally by the hand of the operator.

The object of the present invention is to provide an armor of the general character described with a hand section which will permit the operator to use his hands in a natural, though limited, manner; will enable him to grasp objects over a much wider area than can be done through the use of opposing tong points, and will also enable him to some extent to utilize his sense of feeling when the members of the hand section are brought in contact with other objects.


macduffee 1910 1916   Submarine Armor   William S. Boyd (American)

Above: Macduffee's Submarine Armor as mentioned in Boyd's patent.


Scaphandre N K 1917 1916   Submarine Armor   William S. Boyd (American)

The German company NEUFELDT and KUHNKE patented and used as similar hand to Boyd's in 1917. German patent No. 301434C.


See other early Underwater Robots here.