1966-7 – Space Taxi (Concept) – LTV (American)

MSFC space taxi x640 1966 7   Space Taxi (Concept)   LTV (American)

LTV Space Taxi concept.

LTV spacePod09 1966 7   Space Taxi (Concept)   LTV (American)

Mock-up using models.

LTV spacePod11 1966 7   Space Taxi (Concept)   LTV (American)

LTV spacePod12 1966 7   Space Taxi (Concept)   LTV (American)

Full-scale mock-up

Images sourced from here as original pdf currently unavailable.

•    Ling-Temco-Vought Maneuvering Work Platform and  Space Taxi
In 1966, Ling-Temco-Vought (LTV), in conjunction with Argonne National Laboratory (ANL), completed a thorough investigation of manned maneuvering manipulator spacecrafts for the NASA Marshall Space Flight Center. The objectives of the LTV program, called the Independent Manned Manipulator (IMM) Study, were as follows
- Produce the conceptual designs and mockups of two selected IMM units which extend and enhance man's utilization in the support of AAP experiments and overall areas of EVA during future space exploration.
- Define Research, Development, and Engineering (RD&E) required to implement the IMM systems.
- Develop preliminary program definition plans which lead to flight-qualified hardware in the 1969-1971 time period.
The IMM vehicle designs were evaluated against NASA-specified criteria, and two concepts were selected for detailed analysis. the Maneuvering Work Platform (MWP) and the Space Taxi. The preliminary program definition plans were developed for obtaining the MWP flight-qualified hardware in the 1969-1971 time period and 1972-1974 for the Space Taxi.

space taxi schematic x640 1966 7   Space Taxi (Concept)   LTV (American)

•    Space Taxi Configuration
The Space Taxi configuration, selected and recommended for use in 1975 and beyond, features a multiple crew station built into a rotary vehicle which permits orientation of each operator station relative to the worksite. Electrical bilateral master-slave manipulators were selected by AEC/ANL for incorporation into the Space Taxi configuration.
Figure 5-18 presents the preliminary design of the selected Space Taxi concept developed during the detail analysis phase. The basic vehicle consists of a cylindrical, structural shell, the center portion of which is a pressure vessel forming the crew compartment. The upper and lower unpressurized compartments contain vehicle subsystems and equipments. After worksite attachment, the basic taxi is free to turn about its longitudinal axis in rotary fashion. The rotational motion is accomplished with the upper and lower turrets which support the three anchoring and docking arms. Attached to the sides of the Taxi are the two maintenance manipulator slave arms. An Apollo docking adapter and hatch and an extravehicular maintenance egress hatch are provided. A major element inside the crew compartment is the dual function manipulator master controller. It can swing 180deg to serve as the worksite anchoring arm controller and is a bilateral maintenance manipulator controller.
The Space Taxi is designed for one crewman with the capability to carry another man in a rescue situation. The craft would have a range of approximately 1 1/4 miles in any orbital direction. Like the MWP, its normal duration is 8 hours with a rescue contingency of 2 hours. The physical characteristics of the Space Taxi are:
- Overall length* – 150 inches
- Overall width. – 84 inches (maximum)
- Gross weight (nominal)** – dry, 3198 pounds; wet, 3474 pounds.
* Maximum stowage envelope
** Includes 732 pounds for crew systems and tools/ spares
Translation/Stabilization/Control Subsystem
The Space Taxi uses a hybrid stabilization and control system consisting of control moment gyros (CMG) and jet reaction components. Its characteristics are:
Propulsion:
Propellant – Monopropellant hydrazine
Total Impulse – 51,000 lb/sec.
Total deltaV capability – 488 ft/sec.

Stabilization and Control:
Stabilization and Control Deadband -+2deg
Acceleration (maximum)
Angular – Roll – 16.3deg/sec2
Pitch – 15deg/sec2
Yaw – 40deg/sec2
X – .97 ft/sec2
y – .48 ft/sec2
Z – .48 ft/sec2
Number of thrusters – 24 (25 lbs. max. thrust each)
Rotational rates (maximum)
Roll – 13.1deg/sec.
Pitch – 12deg/sec.
Yaw – 31.80deg/sec.
Actuator Subsystem
The actuator subsystem consists of three electrically connected bilateral docking and anchoring arms used for stabilization at the worksite and two electrically connected bilateral manipulators used for tasks at the worksite.
Environmental Control Subsystem
The SpaceTaxi ECS/LS system provides a 5 psia, 70/30 percent, oxygen-nitrogen atmosphere for closed-cabin operation.
ECS/LS Duration – Nominal    8 hours
Contingency, 2 hours
Metabolic Rates – Average    1250 Btu/hr.
Peak    In excess. of 2150 Btu/hr.
Total heat load capability – 47,703 Btu Repreasurization cycles – 2
A Space Taxi weight summary is shown in Table 5-4 [below].

 1966 7   Space Taxi (Concept)   LTV (American)


Goertz ANL unmanned robot configuration   Copy x640 1966 7   Space Taxi (Concept)   LTV (American)

From 1960, Ray Goertz, who invented electrically remote manipulators for the nuclear industry, together with his team at Argonne Nuclear Laboratories (ANL), were engaged by NASA to specify teleoperator configurations for the Lunar space program. The result is illustrated above.

It should be noted that floating vehicles share one problem. This is their inability to stay immobile relative to the object on which they must act. Hence, they are equipped with docking arms, other than the manipulator(s) directly intended to execute the task, to attach them to the object of their task, whether this is another satellite or an underwater oil platform.

The LTV Space Taxi follows this generalized configuration.


Grappler layout and prototype.

LTV podArm02 1966 7   Space Taxi (Concept)   LTV (American)

LTV podArm03 1966 7   Space Taxi (Concept)   LTV (American)

LTV podArm04 1966 7   Space Taxi (Concept)   LTV (American)

LTV podArm05 1966 7   Space Taxi (Concept)   LTV (American)

LTV podArm06 1966 7   Space Taxi (Concept)   LTV (American)

Images sourced from here as original pdf currently unavailable.


See related LTV Space Horse here.

See other early Teleoperators here.

See other early Lunar and Space Robots here.


1966-7 – Space Horse (Concept) – LTV (American)

1967 space horse LTV x640 1966 7   Space Horse (Concept)   LTV (American)

Space Horse – Bearing a strong resemblance to a mechanical horse in this mockup of a Maneuvering Work Platform, an open space-  going tool shop. Design work on tha platform was done under contract to the National Aeronautics and Space Administration's Marshall Spoce Flight Center at Huntsville, Ala., by LTV Aerospace Corporation's Missile and Space Division.

ltv space horse b x640 1966 7   Space Horse (Concept)   LTV (American)

ltv space horse c x640 1966 7   Space Horse (Concept)   LTV (American)

•    Ling-Temco-Vought Maneuvering Work Platform and  Space Taxi
In 1966, Ling-Temco-Vought (LTV), in conjunction with Argonne National Laboratory (ANL), completed a thorough investigation of manned maneuvering manipulator spacecrafts for the NASA Marshall Space Flight Center. The objectives of the LTV program, called the Independent Manned Manipulator (IMM) Study, were as follows
- Produce the conceptual designs and mockups of two selected IMM units which extend and enhance man's utilization in the support of AAP(Apollo Applications Program) experiments and overall areas of EVA(ExtraVehicular Activity) during future space exploration.
- Define Research, Development, and Engineering (RD&E) required to implement the IMM systems.
- Develop preliminary program definition plans which lead to flight-qualified hardware in the 1969-1971 time period.
The IMM vehicle designs were evaluated against NASA-specified criteria, and two concepts were selected for detailed analysis. the Maneuvering Work Platform (MWP) and the Space Taxi. The preliminary program definition plans were developed for obtaining the MWP flight-qualified hardware in the 1969-1971 time period and 1972-1974 for the Space Taxi.
•    MWP Configuration

 1966 7   Space Horse (Concept)   LTV (American)
The MWP configuration selected consists of four basic modules (Figure 5-17b) {RH-same as 4-11 above].
- A forward control
- An aft propulsion module
- A removable tools/spares nodule
- A collapsible cargo frame
The MWP would carry a crew of one and have a rescue capability of approximately 1 1/4 miles in any orbital direction. Its normal duration is 8 hours with a rescue contingency of 2 hours.


The Daily Messenger 22Nov1967 Space Horse x640 1966 7   Space Horse (Concept)   LTV (American)

Source: The Daily Messenger, 22 Nov 1967.

Wilmington News Journal 27Feb1968 LTV Space Horse x640 1966 7   Space Horse (Concept)   LTV (American)

Source: Wilmington News Journal, 27Feb1968


Grand_Prairie_Daily_News_Feb_25_1968

…"Studies continued toward possible use in the Apollo program of the division's [LTV Missile and Space Division] Astronaut Maneuvering Unit, the self-propelled, stabilized back pack unit designed to permit an astronaut in a pressure suit to operate like a one-man space vehicle for assembling and servicing spacecraft in orbit. The division also performed engineering design work on larger extravehicular units, including an open Maneuvering Work Platform described as a spacegoing toolshop and an enclosed version equipped with remotely-controlled manipulators for space tasks."


See other early Teleoperators here.

See other early Lunar and Space Robots here.


1962 – Unmanned Space Mobot (Concept) – Hughes Aircraft (American)

baker p34a Hughes x640 1962   Unmanned Space Mobot (Concept)   Hughes Aircraft (American)

Hughes Space Mobot concept.

 1962   Unmanned Space Mobot (Concept)   Hughes Aircraft (American)

John W. Clark, Ph.D.
NUCLEAR ELECTRONICS LABORATORY
HUGHES AIRCRAFT COMPANY
CULVER CITY, CALIFORNIA
ROLE OF REMOTE HANDLING IN SPACE [c1962]
Orbiting Vehicles
In connection with orbiting vehicles, remote-handling techniques can advantageously be
employed in connection with maintenance and repair, assembly in orbit, and personnel transfer.
Maintenance and repair is, of cause, confined to orbiting vehicles so expensive as to justify the cost of orbiting a repair system rather than orbiting a complete new satellite.
Assembly of large orbiting vehicles may advantageously be accomplished by remote-control techniques. These techniques will permit the assembly of vehicles far too large to orbit in a single payload. Control of the assembly system may be accomplished either from a ground station or from a manned orbiting vehicle.
Personnel transter, as, for example, between a re-entry vehicle and a manned space station may be facilitated by those of remote-control techniques in accomplishing the final contact between the two space vehicles and to accomplishing an airtight closure or junction between these two which will be safe for personnel transfer.
Lunar Applications
Remote-control techniques will find many applications in the exploration and development of the lunar surface for scientific and military purposes. Preliminary operatiins will probably be accomplished by systems committed from the earth. This maybe followed by development of luna sites, also by earth-controlled vehicles.
After the development of lunar sites, manned lunar expeditions may become feasible. Such expeditions will benefit from the availability of sophisticated remote-handling vehicles which can, under control of the pilot of the space ship, accomplish lunar exploration or advance the development of the sites prepared by the earth-controlled Mobots.
Finally, after habitable lunar stations become available, operations of all kinds upon the lunar surface will still be in large part carried out by Mobots under control of the inhabitants of the lunar station.

DESIGN OF REMOTE-HANDLING SYSTEMS FOR SPACE
This discussion excludes consideration of lunar Mobots. It is, of necessity, confined to certain of the problems uniquely applicable to remote handling in connection with orbiting space vehicles.
Vision
The meet important of the senses, vision, requires particular consideration under space conditions. The harsh illumination will require unusual control of the TV cameras, and also may require specially conrolled illuminations an aid to working on the shadowed side of orbiting objects. The lack of background and of vertical reference are serious psychological problems. Consideration may well be given to artificially inserting both background and vertical reference within thee TV system so that the operator's TV monitors present him information similar to that to which he is accustomed.
These requirements are superimposed upon those applicable to any remote-handling system. Sufficient experience has now been gained with operation of Hughes Mobots to make one confident that adequate vision for performing complex or precise tasks can be furnished to a trained operator by the appropriate use of two or more conventional TV cameras. Additional quantitative studies concerning the relative utilily of multi-camera, stereo, and other methods of vision, with specific reference to the conditions existing in space, will be most valuable.
Dynamics of a Gravity-Free Environment
Operations under orbiting conditions present a novel situation since on is  concerned with acceleration rather than velocities and a relatively small system of limited power consumption can direct the motions of quite heavy objects if appropriate consideration is given to their inertia. For example, an arm capable of lifting an earth weight of 40 pounds can impart a useful acceleration to much heavier masses under weightless conditions. This arm can move a 500-pound mass 5 feet in 2.8 seconds in an optimal situation in which a mass is accelerated for one-half the time and decelerated for one-half the time. Clearly, spacial operator training will be required to obtain successful performance under these conditions, so different from those to which we are accustomed.
Command and Data Link
In cases in which control is provided from a manned space craft, the command and data link can be transmitted from controlling  vessel to Mobot via cable. The time division multiplex command system utilizing trinary digital coding is particularly suitable since it requires only two conductors in the cable. This system has been described in detail in an article by Don A. Campbell (ref. 1). Situations in which radio command is required are also well handled by this same system, which minimizes bandwidth required of the communication channel. The data link which conveys vision, sensory, and other analog information from Mobot to command station can employ the same cable as does the command link. In radio-controlled systems a separate data link is required. The detailed considerations, primarily the trade-offs between power and bandwidth, are different in each case. Particular attention must be paid to utilizing TV systems in which minimum video bandwidth is required in comparison with the conventional RTCA• standard system which is quite wasteful of bandwidth.
Arm Geometry
Numerous space applications are best handled by specific mechanisms tailored to perform specific tasks. No general comments can be made about such mechanisms. There is, however, a definite need for general-purpose handling mechanisms. To meet this need, the Hughes Mark 2 Arm has been developed (figure 1). Its three articulations are each capable of +-90deg motion in either plane. The tong rotates continuously. Its parallel jaws open to a 4-inch width or close completely. They will rotate continuously in either direction. This arm is completely self-contained. All actuators and other mechanisms are included within the arm structure. The only auxiliary space required is that occupied bt the command system. This arm is not presented as the ultimate arm design, but is presented as indicative of a general-purpose arm capable of handling a wide variety of manipulative requirements in the presence of obstacles or in cramped quarters.
•    Radio Technical Committee for Aeronautics
Locomotion
In connection with satellite and orbital vehicle handling arms, only two methods of locomotion appear feabible. These are rockets or jets for traversing the space between one orbiting object and another, and auxiliary arms for moving about on or in a large orbiting vehicle. The preliminary sketches of space Mobots (figures 2 and 3[7]) indicate a four-armed Mobot based on this concept. In general, two of its arms are employed for moving it about in connection with its operations on a orbiting vehicle, while the other two are free for performing any manipulations required.
The Space Environment
The space environment (high vacuum, extremes of temperature, zero gravity, etc.) will have controlling influence to the detailed design of the components which make up any space Mobot. Fortunately, adequate design information is becoming available upon which one can base such engineering design. Further environmental test facilities are becoming available in which components or complete systems can be tested to insure their performance in the space environment.
SUMMARY
Concepts
The above discussions of the role of remote handling in space leads to the preliminary concepts shown in figures 2 and 3[7]. These Mobots employ jets or rockets to move about in space. They are furnished with four ams and two "eyes." The four arms, which are identical, can be utilized for moving the Mobot about on the vehicle on which it is working, positioning it during performance of the task, or guiding or manipulating the objects handled. Even a relatively small Mobot, such as those in figures 2 and 3[7], can handle quite  heavy objects in space if the operator is properly trained in the dynamics of space operations as outlined in the above discussion of the gravity-free environment.
These Mobots may be controlled by cable from a manned space ship or from a ground station by radio beams. In the latter case, it may be necessary to utilize orbiting vehicles as relay points for control of Mobots which do not stay within the visual horizon of any one ground station.
CONCLUSIONS
The work performed to date at Hughes on the electronically controlled remote-control systems to perform complex operations has demonstrated the feasibility of this method of accomplishing useful work an a hazardous environment. Work now in progress demonstrates the feasibility of designing mechanical and electronic structures which will perform in a satisfactory manner in the environmental conditions which prevail in space. Space MOBOTS are technically feasible and can be engineered economically and effectively to accomplish any given tasks which may be placed upon them by our Space program,
REFERENCE
1. Campbell, D. A., "Multiplex Circuits for Control of a Robot," Electronics, 22 January 1960.


Goertz ANL unmanned robot configuration   Copy x640 1962   Unmanned Space Mobot (Concept)   Hughes Aircraft (American)

From 1960, Ray Goertz, who invented electrically remote manipulators for the nuclear industry, together with his team at Argonne Nuclear Laboratories (ANL), were engaged by NASA to specify teleoperator configurations for the Lunar space program. The result is illustrated above.

It should be noted that floating vehicles share one problem. This is their inability to stay immobile relative to the object on which they must act. Hence, they are equipped with docking arms, other than the manipulator(s) directly intended to execute the task, to attach them to the object of their task, whether this is another satellite or an underwater oil platform.


Most of the Hughes Aircraft Mobot concepts were based around the Mobot Mk II arm.

 1962   Unmanned Space Mobot (Concept)   Hughes Aircraft (American)

Mobot Mkii arm spec x640 1962   Unmanned Space Mobot (Concept)   Hughes Aircraft (American)

 1962   Unmanned Space Mobot (Concept)   Hughes Aircraft (American)

Mobot Gripper specification.


John Clark Linac device Corbis VV13462 1962   Unmanned Space Mobot (Concept)   Hughes Aircraft (American)

Dr. John W. Clark, Manager of the Nuclear Electronics Laboratory at Hughes Aircraft Corporation, headed the Mobot group.


See other early Teleoperators here.

See other early Lunar and Space Robots here.


1959 – Lunar Robot Mobot (Concept) – Hughes Aircraft (American)

 1959   Lunar Robot Mobot (Concept)   Hughes Aircraft (American)

MACHINE TO EXPLORE MOON

FIRST EXPLORER of the moon may be a machine. Roaming the crust, it would collect samples of rocks and dust with mechanical fingers, under remote control of spacemen remaining safely within a landed rocket ship. Hughes Aircraft company designers say it could be patterned closely after their Mobot, a mobile mechanical manipulator whose dexterity inspired the idea.

Source: Popular Science July, 1959.


Mobot 1 Hughes concept 6 x640 1959   Lunar Robot Mobot (Concept)   Hughes Aircraft (American)

Another Hughes Mobot concept showing similar arm configuration.


See other early Teleoperators here.

See other early Lunar Robots here.


1923 – Walking Lunar Rover (Science Fiction) – Homer Eon Flint (American)

flint walking lunar rover 1923 x640 1923   Walking Lunar Rover (Science Fiction)   Homer Eon Flint (American)

The vehicle in the book is described as being bee-like; when not flying, then walking.

During the 1920s and 1930s, the lunar rovers of science fiction were sometimes more humorous than scientific. Homer Eon Flint, in 1923, proposed in his novel "Out of the Moon"  what might be termed an ornithomorphic design.  It resembled a large, two-legged, bird like rover that walked across the Moon.  


Other related information:

In the book Devolutionist, space travelers experiment with Venusian methods of telepathic space travel. They leave our solar system to discover and explore the earthlike planet Capellette of the star Capella. In the Emancipatrix, they go to the planet Sanus of the star Arcturus. In both unique worlds, they become embroiled in the struggles and challenges of the inhabitants, and much more. This is Book Two of the Dr. Kinney adventures. (Summary by A.Gramour)

the devolutionist and the emancipatrix homer eon flint 1923   Walking Lunar Rover (Science Fiction)   Homer Eon Flint (American)

The above book cover shows the vehicle to be an ornithopter, but the landing gear (the legs) are not shown.

For a more recent walking ornithopter, see here.


HomerEonFlindt 1923   Walking Lunar Rover (Science Fiction)   Homer Eon Flint (American)

Homer Eon Flint (1888 as Homer Eon Flindt – 1924) was a writer of pulp science fiction novels and stories. He began working as a scenarist for silent films (reportedly at his wife's insistence) in 1912. In 1918 he published "The Planeteer" in All-Story Weekly. His "Dr. Kinney" stories were reprinted by Ace Books in 1965, and with Austin Hall he co-wrote the novel The Blind Spot. Reportedly he died as a result of an involvement in a bank robbery attempt. According to his granddaughter the only witness, was himself a gangster.


See all the known Steam Men and early Walking Machines here.