Archive for the ‘Teleoperators’ Category

1958 – Mobile Remote Servo-manipulator – Ray Goertz et al (American)

Mascot Telechir P1 x640 1958 – Mobile Remote Servo manipulator   Ray Goertz et al (American)

Mobile Remote Servo-manipulator.

mascot press 1 x640 1958 – Mobile Remote Servo manipulator   Ray Goertz et al (American)

Caption: Robot Demonstrations Of The Atomic Age: Many onlookers – including schoolboys were thrilled by the robot "hands" – dealings with a variety of tasks on one of the stands at the Geneva Atomic Exhibition. The "almost human hands" are used in dealing with radio-active materials behind protective walls and are controlled from a distance with the aid of thick glass windows or with the medium of TV. Photo shows This American made slave robot is designed for the handling of radio-active materials 1/4 and is seen at the Geneva Exhibition. Photo is dated 09-09- 1958.

argonne 1958 – Mobile Remote Servo manipulator   Ray Goertz et al (American)

In use at Argonne National Laboratories, located outside Chicago, Illinois, USA.

KSB45177 Copy x640 1958 – Mobile Remote Servo manipulator   Ray Goertz et al (American)

50347909 remote control manipulator goertz x640 1958 – Mobile Remote Servo manipulator   Ray Goertz et al (American)

Slave unit.

50347944 remote control manipulator goertz x640 1958 – Mobile Remote Servo manipulator   Ray Goertz et al (American)

Slave unit in the foreground; master unit in the background.

50347917 remote control manipulator goertz x640 1958 – Mobile Remote Servo manipulator   Ray Goertz et al (American)

Source: Above 3 images from Getty.


Publication number    US2978118 A
Publication date    Apr 4, 1961
Filing date    Nov 3, 1959
Inventors    Raymond C Goertz, John H Grimson, Frank A Kohut
Original Assignee    Raymond C Goertz, John H Grimson, Frank A Kohut

 1958 – Mobile Remote Servo manipulator   Ray Goertz et al (American)

Publication number    US3018980 A
Publication date    Jan 30, 1962
Filing date    Nov 3, 1959
Inventors    Downers Grove, Goertz Raymond C, Lindberg John F
Original Assignee    Downers Grove, Goertz Raymond C, Lindberg John F

This invention relates to a remote-control manipulator in which slave and master units are electrically interconnected. More specifically, the invention relates to such a manipulator in which two slave units are mounted side by side on a mobile vehicle.
Goertz et al. Patent 2,846,084, dated August 5, 1958, discloses and claims a manipulator having master and slave units electrically connected with one another. 'With such a manipulator the master and slave units can be extensively separated from one another, and the slave unit can be completely sealed in an enclosure.
The present manipulator is an improvement of that of the above Goertz et al. patent in that two slave units as well as two master units are mounted side by side to take advantage of the two hands of the human operator and the two slave units are mounted on a mobile vehicle so as to reach a maximum amount of space.
One desirable feature of the assembly of two slave units and vehicle is that it takes up a relatively small amount of space so that it may be readily maneuverable and have access to the maximum space. Another desirable feature is that the slave units and vehicle should be readily repairable by another manipulator if operation in a sealed enclosure is indicated.
An object of the present invention is to provide a manipulator unit of compact arrangement and size which enable the unit along with a similar unit and a mobile vehicle carrying the units to occupy a small amount of space.
A further object is to provide a manipulator unit that is so constructed and arranged as to be readily repairable.

 1958 – Mobile Remote Servo manipulator   Ray Goertz et al (American)

Publication number    US2846084 A
Publication date    Aug 5, 1958
Filing date    Jun 21, 1955
Inventors    Goertz Raymond C, Olsen Robert A, Thompson William M
Original Assignee    Goertz Raymond C, Olsen Robert A, Thompson William M

 1958 – Mobile Remote Servo manipulator   Ray Goertz et al (American)


isea97 1958 – Mobile Remote Servo manipulator   Ray Goertz et al (American)

Note: This Remote Manipulator is not MASCOT.


See other early Teleoperators, Exoskeletons and Industrial Robots here.


1954 – ElectroMechanical Manipulator – Ray Goertz (American)

goertz e1 1a x640 1954 – ElectroMechanical Manipulator – Ray Goertz (American)

1954 – ElectroMechanical Manipulator by Ray Goertz (pictured)

Goertz E3 x640 1954 – ElectroMechanical Manipulator – Ray Goertz (American)

mark4a manipulator x640 1954 – ElectroMechanical Manipulator – Ray Goertz (American)

goertz e4a master manipulator x640 1954 – ElectroMechanical Manipulator – Ray Goertz (American)

goertz e4a master servo x640 1954 – ElectroMechanical Manipulator – Ray Goertz (American)

goertz e4a schematic x640 1954 – ElectroMechanical Manipulator – Ray Goertz (American)

goertz e4a servo x640 1954 – ElectroMechanical Manipulator – Ray Goertz (American)

multiple manipulators goertz x640 1954 – ElectroMechanical Manipulator – Ray Goertz (American)

50666626 atomic energy exhibit in the us pavilion gettyimage x640 1954 – ElectroMechanical Manipulator – Ray Goertz (American)

E4A slave x640 1954 – ElectroMechanical Manipulator – Ray Goertz (American)

Model E4a Slave unit.

goertz master slave modes x640 1954 – ElectroMechanical Manipulator – Ray Goertz (American)

Diagram by Goertz showing the various control modes of Master-Slave arms.


Patent information:

Publication number    US2846084 A
Publication date    Aug 5, 1958
Filing date    Jun 21, 1955
Inventors    Goertz Raymond C, Olsen Robert A, Thompson William M
Original Assignee    Goertz Raymond C, Olsen Robert A, Thompson William M

 1954 – ElectroMechanical Manipulator – Ray Goertz (American)


Historical Significance:

Goertz first described the force reflection manipulator in 1952 – Goertz RC, ‘A force reflecting positional servo mechanism’, Nucleonics, Vol 10, Part II, pp43-45, 1952. Other remote manipulator systems of the time were either mechanical, hydraulic, or electro-hydraulic, needing to be closely coupled. Sixty years later we are still seeing ideas that this invention spawned. Ideas such as telepresence in areas such as underwater and outer-space.

Goertz ANL unmanned robot configuration   Copy x640 1954 – ElectroMechanical Manipulator – Ray Goertz (American)

From 1960, Ray Goertz, who invented electrically remote manipulators for the nuclear industry, together with his team at Argonne Nuclear Laboratories (ANL), were engaged by NASA to specify teleoperator configurations for the Lunar space program. The result is illustrated above.

It should be noted that floating vehicles share one problem. This is their inability to stay immobile relative to the object on which they must act. Hence, they are equipped with docking arms, other than the manipulator(s) directly intended to execute the task, to attach them to the object of their task, whether this is another satellite or an underwater oil platform.


Earlier 1949 Mechanical Manipulator by Goertz.

RSF50243 x640 1954 – ElectroMechanical Manipulator – Ray Goertz (American)

1949 goertz press 1 x640 1954 – ElectroMechanical Manipulator – Ray Goertz (American)

Ray Goertz with his prototype manipulators.

Manipulator 1948 ANL Mod1 x640 1954 – ElectroMechanical Manipulator – Ray Goertz (American)

goertz 49 proto 1 x640 1954 – ElectroMechanical Manipulator – Ray Goertz (American)

goertz 49 proto 2 x640 1954 – ElectroMechanical Manipulator – Ray Goertz (American)


See other early Teleoperators, Exoskeletons and Industrial Robots here.


1989 – MOSAP (MObile Surface APplication traverse vehicle) – NASA (American)

MOSAP lunar x640 1989   MOSAP (MObile Surface APplication traverse vehicle)   NASA (American)

American manned lunar rover. Study 1989. MOSAP (MObile Surface APplication traverse vehicle) was the pressurized lunar rover that was the key to NASA’s 90-Day-Study moon base concept of 1989. It would greatly extend the range of manned lunar expeditions. MOSAP had a maximum range of 3000 km with a nominal speed of 10 kph.

MOSAP moonpcrv 1989   MOSAP (MObile Surface APplication traverse vehicle)   NASA (American)

MOSAP interior. This vehicle would expand research operations to a range of hundreds of kilometers from the outpost. MOSAP would provide a shirtsleeve environment for missions lasting up to two weeks. The robotic manipulators can be used for collecting soil samples.

MOSAP l hang 1989   MOSAP (MObile Surface APplication traverse vehicle)   NASA (American)

An unpressurized lunar hangar will be used for assembling and maintaining equipment and vehicles such as MOSAP.

The complete system consisted of four modules to allow flexibility in mission planning — a Primary Control Research Vehicle (PCRV), a habitation unit, an auxiliary power cart, and an experiment and sample trailer. Each unit could be individually operated or connected in a train configuration. This vehicle would expand research operations to a range of hundreds of kilometers from the outpost.  The robotic manipulators could be used for collecting soil samples.

Source: here.


See other early Space Teleoperators here.

See other early Lunar and Space Robots here.


1940 onwards – Miscellaneous Lunar and Off World Rovers with Manipulators Concepts

Most of the unmanned Lunar and Martian rover concepts were designed to use manipulator arms for sampling rocks and surface material.

a schoenherr crawler type 2 x640 1940 onwards   Miscellaneous Lunar and Off World Rovers with Manipulators Concepts

John Schoenherr’s (1935-2010) fabulous Moon Crawler painting pictured above, which he painted in 1961 for the cover of Analog magazine that year. Source: Project SWORD

b schoenherr crawler type 3 x640 1940 onwards   Miscellaneous Lunar and Off World Rovers with Manipulators Concepts   c Schoenherr 1964 bill b Crawler x640 1940 onwards   Miscellaneous Lunar and Off World Rovers with Manipulators Concepts   imai space attack unti moon crawler art x640 1940 onwards   Miscellaneous Lunar and Off World Rovers with Manipulators Concepts Imai Space Base 4 Noppin x640 1940 onwards   Miscellaneous Lunar and Off World Rovers with Manipulators Concepts

moon crawler sword annual 1969 x640 1940 onwards   Miscellaneous Lunar and Off World Rovers with Manipulators Concepts

Project S.W.O.R.D. (SPACE WORLD ORGANISATION FOR RESEARCH AND DEVELOPMENT) Moon Crawler 1967.

S.W.O.R.D. images sourced from projectsword.

1970ARocketTriptoTheMoon09 e1410676816197 1940 onwards   Miscellaneous Lunar and Off World Rovers with Manipulators Concepts

Moon tractor from the children’s book “A Rocket Trip to the Moon”, Golden Press 1970. Sourced from dreamsofspace.

life man and space belg Ed Valigursky x640 1940 onwards   Miscellaneous Lunar and Off World Rovers with Manipulators Concepts

Artwork by Ed Valigursky, from the French edition LIFE’s MAN AND SPACE book. Edition date unknown, original English edition 1964.

buergle gelaendefahrtaufdemmond x640 1940 onwards   Miscellaneous Lunar and Off World Rovers with Manipulators Concepts

A depiction of unmanned moon crawlers originally for the Surveyor program. The crawler on the right-hand side is actually the Sperry luna crawler. Above image from Hobby magazine no.3 1962.

  moon scout x640 1940 onwards   Miscellaneous Lunar and Off World Rovers with Manipulators Concepts

columb rover 2 kbom 60s x640 1940 onwards   Miscellaneous Lunar and Off World Rovers with Manipulators Concepts

More Lunar explorer toys.

kolchitsky mars56 x6401 1940 onwards   Miscellaneous Lunar and Off World Rovers with Manipulators Concepts

“The Road to the Moon is Ready” by Nikolay Kolchitsky. Illustration for the Tekhnika Molodezhi magazine, 1956. Source: here.

tm mag z18 x640 1940 onwards   Miscellaneous Lunar and Off World Rovers with Manipulators Concepts

Illustration for the Tekhnika Molodezhi magazine.

1953PremiereCroisiereSurLaLune07 x640 1940 onwards   Miscellaneous Lunar and Off World Rovers with Manipulators Concepts

Illustration from Première Croisière Sur La Lune by Fletcher Pratt, 1952.

1971japanspaceencyclopedia07 x640 1940 onwards   Miscellaneous Lunar and Off World Rovers with Manipulators Concepts

From 1971 Japan Space Encyclopedia.

1974Thenext50yearsonthemoon03 x640 1940 onwards   Miscellaneous Lunar and Off World Rovers with Manipulators Concepts 1974Thenext50yearsonthemoon04 x640 1940 onwards   Miscellaneous Lunar and Off World Rovers with Manipulators Concepts lunar surveyor vehicle concept sketch x640 1940 onwards   Miscellaneous Lunar and Off World Rovers with Manipulators Concepts

NASA Lunar Survey Vehicle conceptual illustration, 1988.

fig13 x640 1940 onwards   Miscellaneous Lunar and Off World Rovers with Manipulators Concepts

Solar-powered rover with mechanical arms.

1965russianmoon8 x640 1940 onwards   Miscellaneous Lunar and Off World Rovers with Manipulators Concepts

Above: Prediction of life on the moon c1965. Illustration from the book Station “Moon” (Stantsiia “Luna”) (1965) .

1974russianmmoon02 x640 1940 onwards   Miscellaneous Lunar and Off World Rovers with Manipulators Concepts

Above: Later prediction of life on the moon c1974

For large images of the above two Russian illustrations, see here.


Off World Rover illustrations

life on jupiter frank r paul 1940 x640 1940 onwards   Miscellaneous Lunar and Off World Rovers with Manipulators Concepts

Illustration by Frank R. Paul, Fantastic Adventure, 1940.

marsrover x640 1940 onwards   Miscellaneous Lunar and Off World Rovers with Manipulators Concepts

Martian Rover samplers.

mars sample return x640 1940 onwards   Miscellaneous Lunar and Off World Rovers with Manipulators Concepts


See othe Lunar Walkers here.

See other early Space Teleoperators here.

See other early Lunar and Space Robots here.


1965 onwards – Miscellaneous Lunar and Off World Walker Concepts

space teleoperation concept x640 1965 onwards   Miscellaneous Lunar and Off World Walker Concepts

4-Legged robot space explorer.

fig23 x640 1965 onwards   Miscellaneous Lunar and Off World Walker Concepts

Robot Rescuing an Astronaut on the Lunar Surface. Robot reminiscent of Odex-1.

fig13 x640 1965 onwards   Miscellaneous Lunar and Off World Walker Concepts

Legged robot turning a valve.

  1967firstvacationonthemoon36 french lune x640 1965 onwards   Miscellaneous Lunar and Off World Walker Concepts

Model Lunar walker from the French children’s book “Permieres Vacances Sur La Lune” ["First Vacation on the Moon"], Marc Heimer – 1967.

1965russianmoon8 x640 1965 onwards   Miscellaneous Lunar and Off World Walker Concepts

Above: Prediction of life on the moon c1965. Illustration from the book Station “Moon” (Stantsiia “Luna”) (1965) .

1974russianmmoon02 x640 1965 onwards   Miscellaneous Lunar and Off World Walker Concepts

Above: Later prediction of life on the moon c1974

For large images of the above two Russian illustrations, see here.


Off World Walker illustrations

Leonov Sokolov Titan rover 1965 onwards   Miscellaneous Lunar and Off World Walker Concepts

A. Leonov, A. Sokolov  c1965
“Automatic rover on Titan , Saturn’s moon “. A novel rolling-wheel propulsion whereby the trailing wheel segment pushes down rolling the rover forwards, then retracts and the next segment repeats the action. There are stabilizing skis on the vehicle.

Leonov Sokolov Pluto 67 2 1965 onwards   Miscellaneous Lunar and Off World Walker Concepts

A giant walking capsule or  rover on Pluto. Illustration by A. Leonov and A. Sokolov – “Pluto”. PREPARATION PRECAUTIONS from  a postcard “Wait for us , the stars” , 1967 (Soviet).

TM691204va 0001 x640 1965 onwards   Miscellaneous Lunar and Off World Walker Concepts

Off-world walker. From Soviet magazine dated 1969. Most likely illustrated by A. Leonov and A. Sokolov


Marsohod concept – 1976

Marsohod x640 1965 onwards   Miscellaneous Lunar and Off World Walker Concepts sokolov mars cherez peschanuju reku x640 1965 onwards   Miscellaneous Lunar and Off World Walker Concepts

Above illustration painted by A. Sokolov.

  marsohod 1976 lge x640 1965 onwards   Miscellaneous Lunar and Off World Walker Concepts

Source: here.


See othe Lunar Walkers here.

See other early Space Teleoperators here.

See other early Lunar and Space Robots here.