Posts Tagged ‘American’

1970 – Experimental Teleoperator System (T/S) – NASA (American)

remote robot 1970 press detaily x640 1970   Experimental Teleoperator System (T/S)   NASA (American)

nasa teleop space exp p197a x640 1970   Experimental Teleoperator System (T/S)   NASA (American)

TELEOPERATION – OBJECTIVES
The objectives of this FPE are to develop and evaluate an experimental teleoperator (T/O) system. Such a system would be a precursor to an operational system and would provide a means for evaluating teleoperator performance, safety, and suitability for performing various tasks in space. Upon completion of this experimental phase, the system would be converted to an interim operational tool for use with the Space Shuttle or Space Station while final design of a fully operational system was being completed.
PHYSICAL DESCRIPTION
The experimental teleoperator (T/O) system comprises a small, free-flying T/O spacecraft and a control station. A two-way RF link provides commands to the T/O spacecraft and feedback information to the control station. The T/O system concept is depicted in Figure 5-1 above.
The T/O manipulator arms duplicate the motions of a human controller operating the master manipulator at the control Station. A stereoscopic TV system and manipulator force feedback provide the controller with a feeling of presence at the T/O work site.
The control station may be located in a parent spacecraft or in a ground installation.
An operational T/O system would be used to perform various inspection, assembly, maintenance, and servicing tasks in lieu of performance of these tasks by an astronaut in EVA. The experimental T/O system will be designed to perform representative tasks which will serve as the basis for comparing T/0 capabilities versus those of an EVA astronaut. The experimental teleoperator system to comprised of the following elements:
a. Teleoperator spacecraft.
b. Control station.
c. Support equipment.
d. Ground-based control station.

nasa teleop space exp p198 x640 1970   Experimental Teleoperator System (T/S)   NASA (American)
The teleoperator spacecraft, illustrated in Figure 5-2, consists of a structure housing the spacecraft subsystems, a propellant supply tank, four sets of quad thrusters, a two-axis camera mount, binocular TV cameras and lights, a single close-up TV camera, two manipulator arms with interchangeable end effectors, and three docking arms.
Control of the T/O is accomplished from the control station depicted in Figure 5-1 above.  
The manipulators used on the T/O will be a three-joint design with a separable end effector. The manipulator arms will fold to reduce the envelope of the T/0 for docking and stowage as shown in Figure 5-2. The manipulators will use a closed-loop control system with force feedback to the master manipulator arms at the control station. The basic end effector will be the parallel jaw grasping mechanism. End effectors will be replaceable with special purpose tools, such as power driven wrenches, etc.


remote robot 1970 press 1 x640 1970   Experimental Teleoperator System (T/S)   NASA (American)

WASHINGTON–SPACE SHUTTLE–Inspection of a space shuttle before re-entry by a remote robot. Using a television camera and the arms of a robot an astronaut could control everything from inside the spacecraft.

remote robot 1970 press 4 x640 1970   Experimental Teleoperator System (T/S)   NASA (American)

np2 x640 1970   Experimental Teleoperator System (T/S)   NASA (American)

np2   Copy x640 1970   Experimental Teleoperator System (T/S)   NASA (American)

np2   Copy   Copy x640 1970   Experimental Teleoperator System (T/S)   NASA (American)

Above images released by NASA on November 17, 1970.


See other early Space Teleoperators here.

See other early Lunar and Space Robots here.


1987 – Flight Telerobotic Servicer (FTS) – Grumman (American)

fts grumman 87 x640 1987   Flight Telerobotic Servicer (FTS)   Grumman (American)

The flight telerobotic servicer, or FTS, was conceived as a means of incorporating U.S. robotics technology on Space Station Freedom. The U.S. Congress was interested in advancing both robotics and automation technology for the benefit of the Station, as well as directing spin-offs to the U.S. economy. In addition to ensuring technology transfer between various U.S. industries, the FTS would also serve to provide telerobotics assistance to early Station assembly tasks, service attached scientific payloads, and serve as a telerobotic assistant to EVA crewmembers.

telerobots 87 88 2c x640 1987   Flight Telerobotic Servicer (FTS)   Grumman (American)

17dof arm grumman x640 1987   Flight Telerobotic Servicer (FTS)   Grumman (American)

NASA decided to develop a $288-million FLIGHT TELEROBOTIC SERVICER in 1987 after Congress voiced concern about American competitiveness in the field of robotics. The FTS would also help astronauts assemble the Space Station, which was growing bigger and more complex with each redesign. Martin Marietta and Grumman received $1.5-million study contracts in November 1987. Grumman were losing finalists. The Bush Administration briefly tried to commercialize the FTS project in early 1989. The contractors objected since the FTS had no commercial customers.

arm5 grumman x640 1987   Flight Telerobotic Servicer (FTS)   Grumman (American)

frs 1989 2 x640 1987   Flight Telerobotic Servicer (FTS)   Grumman (American)

The FTS concept was no longer necessary after the Space Station in-orbit assembly procedures were greatly simplified in 1990-91.


See other early Space Teleoperators here.

See other early Lunar and Space Robots here.


1987 – Flight Telerobotic Servicer (FTS) – Martin Marietta (American)

frs martin flight robotic servicer 1989 1 1987   Flight Telerobotic Servicer (FTS)   Martin Marietta (American)

The flight telerobotic servicer, or FTS, was conceived as a means of incorporating U.S. robotics technology on Space Station Freedom. The U.S. Congress was interested in advancing both robotics and automation technology for the benefit of the Station, as well as directing spin-offs to the U.S. economy. In addition to ensuring technology transfer between various U.S. industries, the FTS would also serve to provide telerobotics assistance to early Station assembly tasks, service attached scientific payloads, and serve as a telerobotic assistant to EVA crewmembers.
The prime contract to manufacture the FTS was allocated to Martin Marietta Corp. with NASA's Goddard Spaceflight Center (GSFC) serving as the technical/managerial lead for integration onto the Space Station. The FTS was scheduled to fly as part of the Station's first element launch package in 1995, but the FTS program was terminated in 1991 because of SSF budgetary cutbacks. Figure 13 shows the final FTS concept.

 1987   Flight Telerobotic Servicer (FTS)   Martin Marietta (American)

Source: Teleoperation and Robotics in Space, ed. by Carl F. Ruoff, 1994 .

free flight telerobotic servicer fts MARTIN 1987   Flight Telerobotic Servicer (FTS)   Martin Marietta (American)

NASA decided to develop a $288-million FLIGHT TELEROBOTIC SERVICER in 1987 after Congress voiced concern about American competitiveness in the field of robotics. The FTS would also help astronauts assemble the Space Station, which was growing bigger and more complex with each redesign. Martin Marietta and Grumman received $1.5-million study contracts in November 1987. Shown here is the winning design by Martin Marietta, who received a $297-million contract in May 1989 to develop a vehicle by 1993. Grumman were losing finalists. The Bush Administration briefly tried to commercialize the FTS project in early 1989. The contractors objected since the FTS had no commercial customers.

 1987   Flight Telerobotic Servicer (FTS)   Martin Marietta (American)

 1987   Flight Telerobotic Servicer (FTS)   Martin Marietta (American)

The DTF-1 manipulator as used on the FTS. It has 7 degrees-of-freedom and is approximately 5.5 feet long from the shoulder to the toolplate.

 1987   Flight Telerobotic Servicer (FTS)   Martin Marietta (American)

The FTS concept was no longer necessary after the Space Station in-orbit assembly procedures were greatly simplified in 1990-91.


See other early Space Teleoperators here.

See other early Lunar and Space Robots here.


1971 – Manned/Unmanned Lunar Explorer (MULE) Concept – NASA (American)

MULE01 x640 1971   Manned/Unmanned Lunar Explorer (MULE) Concept   NASA (American)

Manned/Unmanned Lunar Explorer (MULE)

Another Dual-Mode (Manned/Unmanned) LRV for Post-Apollo missions. This one with manipluator arms. Courtesy of one of NASAs system engineering courses.

MULE02 x640 1971   Manned/Unmanned Lunar Explorer (MULE) Concept   NASA (American)

MULE03 x640 1971   Manned/Unmanned Lunar Explorer (MULE) Concept   NASA (American)

MULE04 x640 1971   Manned/Unmanned Lunar Explorer (MULE) Concept   NASA (American)

Source: here.


See other early Space Teleoperators here.

See other early Lunar Robots here.


1972 – Extendable Stiff Arm Manipulator (ESAM) – Marshall Space Flight Center (American)

ESAM manipulator x640 1972   Extendable Stiff Arm Manipulator (ESAM)   Marshall Space Flight Center (American)

ESAM with controllers x640 1972   Extendable Stiff Arm Manipulator (ESAM)   Marshall Space Flight Center (American)

1.0 INTRODUCTION
Teleoperator technology is presently being studied within NASA for on-orbit applications, including assembling of large structures, servicing and retrieval of satellites. The orbital teleoperator program is being conducted by MSFC and is designed to produce a suitable system for a series of Earth Orbital Teleoperator.
The orbital teleoperator system will include small dextrous servicing manipulators to be used in satellite servicing. The manipulator will perform tasks such as the removal and replacement of modules. Manipulator control and visual feedback will be carried out by remote data link with an operator located in the orbiter aft cabin or on the ground. The elements of a manipulator system therefore include the
. manipulator arm and end effector
. control system
. visual system
. operator
. signal transmission

3.0 MANIPULATOR SYSTEMS
The development of remote manipulator systems applicable to space missions is to be preceded by a series of comprehensive investigations into existing remote-manipulator technology, operator control, and management of remote manipulator systems and RMS requirements and applications in space missions.  
NASA's RMS/EVA (Remote Manipulator Arm/ExtraVehicular Activity) committee has assigned to Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) the responsibility for earth orbital teleoperator technology development and integration, especially as it applies to free flying systems (FFTS) and manipulator systems mounted internally to spacecraft.
As part of its overall effort, MSFC developed the Teleoperator Technology Development Plan and in the implementation of this plan, established the Manipulator System Evaluation Program. MSFC's Electronics and Control Laboratory houses the Manipulator System Evaluation Laboratory (MSEL) which has been the focal point for gathering experimental derived data on existing manipulator Systems. The MSEL provides the necessary controlled environment for the study of each of the components of the manipulator system and the higher order interactions of the manipulator system components. As is the case in each of the major teleoperator subsystems. the evaluations of manipulator systems represent only part of a more extensive effort to adequately define the effects of system parameters, mission requirements, task conditions, human operator performance, and state-of-the-art factors which may impact remotely manned missions.

MSFC Extendable Stiff Arm Manipulator (ESAM) with Analog/Joystick controller

ESAM-ANALOG/JOYSTICK SYSTEM
The ESAM is a non-anthropomorphic, five-degree-of-freedom manipulator representing the state-of-the-art achievement for general purpose remote manipulator units. The ESAM was designed and developed at the Marshall Space Flight Canter and evaluated at the Manipulator Laboratories of MSFC.
The ESAM, as depicted in Figure 3.1, is basically a tubular, fixed member having a square cross section which provides support and storage for an extendable stiff member. The extendable member has a wrist assembly which provides roil and pitch positioning to the end effector. The Manipulator Arm azimuth and elevation position motors and the extend/retract motor are mounted to the fixed member. Each ESAM joint is driven by a 28 VDC reversible motor through a planetary gear system to harmonic drive transmission.
….

 1972   Extendable Stiff Arm Manipulator (ESAM)   Marshall Space Flight Center (American)
ESAM operation entails azimuth/elevation at the shoulder joint. The entire outer and inner member and wrist assembly may be moved through an azimuth angle via 28 volt DC motor acting through a planetary gear system.
The elevation motor and drive assembly is inside the azimuth assembly.
The two joints and associated driving assemblies can move the fixed member in 660 degree envelopes in azimuth and 180 degrees in elevation.
The extendable member is a square cross sectional tube which telescopes within the fixed member. The extension is implemented by a 28 volt DC drive system. The extension range is 68 cm. (26.75 in.). The wrist pitch assembly at the end of the extendable member uses a 28 volt DC motor to drive the wrist 70 degrees in pitch. The final arm degree of freedom is wrist roll which has a range of 540 degrees and is driven by a 28 volt DC motor.

Source: excerpt from Earth Orbital Teleoperator Manipulator System Evaluation Program, 1975 by Essex Corp for NSAS contract # 30545


See other early Space Teleoperators here.

See other early Lunar and Space Robots here.