Posts Tagged ‘1967’

1967 – Space Work Platform – Bendix Company (American)

bendix mockup 67 1967   Space Work Platform   Bendix Company (American)

SPACE WORK PLATFORM
 A self-propelled space work platform for astronauts based aboard a "mother spaceship" has been designed by the Bendix Corporation's Missile Systems division in Mishawaka, Ind.
 A full-scale mock-up of the space vehicle, prepared under a $40.000 contract from the Applied Physics Laboratory of Johns Hopkins University, which was responsible for the basic concepts, is now being studied by officials of the National Aeronautics and Space Administration in Washington.
 The EVA (Extra-Vehicular Activity) work platform is designed to help spacemen perform a variety of missions such as inspecting and maintaining orbiting objects, rescuing marooned astronauts, assembling structures in space and transferring objects from one orbit to another or one spacecraft to another.
 The Bendix EVA is a one-man open platform that allows an astronaut to maneuver through space, anchor the vehicle to other objects in space and perform various tasks with two electrically powered mechanical "hands." It can range a maximum of three nautical miles from the mother ship and carries sufficient oxygen to sustain the astronaut for eight hours.

Source: Hobbs Daily News, Wed Oct 4, 1967.


 1967   Space Work Platform   Bendix Company (American)

Modules available to the platform include the long range rendezvous module, the extended propulsion capability module, and the payload module. The long range rendezvous module is required for missions requiring excursions in excess of 10,000 feet. The module provides radar parameters of azimuth, elevation, range, and range-rate for computer-controlled rendezvous. Radar maximum range is 250 miles. The extended propulsion capability module provides an increase in available delta velocity from 300 to 1085 fps. The delta velocity for the full-up platform is 975 fps. The payload module mounted on the floor of the platform provides storage for tools, spare parts, rescue equipment, repair kits, test equipment, and special work aids.
Stabilization is provided by automatic attitude control.
All commands initiated by controller (attitude or translational) actuation result in full-on thruster firing. No proportional rate command is provided.
The platform is capable of serving as a portable worksite and can be fitted with manipulator arms to increase the reach and maintain and amplify forces provided by the astronaut. Worksite anchors are provided to connect the platform to structures. These consist of adhesive pads at the ends of three rods extending forward from the platform. The pads contain electrically heated epoxy adhesives and are left on the surface at undocking.


 1967   Space Work Platform   Bendix Company (American)

Bendix Corporation Module EVA Work Platform

This system proposed by Bendix and described in Section 4.4 is a configuration for an EVA work platform to be used by a suited astronaut in an orbital operation. The design consists of an assembly of five modules which are removable and interchangeable. As proposed, the astronaut conducts most of his activity from the platform; if he were equipped with a portable life support system, he could leave the platform if he desired. The platform could perform for a period of about 4 hours normally (extended to 8 hours with supplemental life support) (see Figure 5-17a).

The platform incorporates two bilateral (master-slave) manipulators. These manipulators are capable of magnifying or locking forces and extending the astronaut's reach. The manipulators have the following characteristics:
- Electrically driven
- Force amplification ratio: 2:1
- Maximum forces at slave: 25 pounds
- Working volume at master: 1 cubic foot
- Working volume at slave: approximately 525 cubic feet (5 foot radius)


See other early Teleoperators here.

See other early Lunar and Space Robots here.


1966-7 – Space Taxi (Concept) – LTV (American)

MSFC space taxi x640 1966 7   Space Taxi (Concept)   LTV (American)

LTV Space Taxi concept.

LTV spacePod09 1966 7   Space Taxi (Concept)   LTV (American)

Mock-up using models.

LTV spacePod11 1966 7   Space Taxi (Concept)   LTV (American)

LTV spacePod12 1966 7   Space Taxi (Concept)   LTV (American)

Full-scale mock-up

Images sourced from here as original pdf currently unavailable.

•    Ling-Temco-Vought Maneuvering Work Platform and  Space Taxi
In 1966, Ling-Temco-Vought (LTV), in conjunction with Argonne National Laboratory (ANL), completed a thorough investigation of manned maneuvering manipulator spacecrafts for the NASA Marshall Space Flight Center. The objectives of the LTV program, called the Independent Manned Manipulator (IMM) Study, were as follows
- Produce the conceptual designs and mockups of two selected IMM units which extend and enhance man's utilization in the support of AAP experiments and overall areas of EVA during future space exploration.
- Define Research, Development, and Engineering (RD&E) required to implement the IMM systems.
- Develop preliminary program definition plans which lead to flight-qualified hardware in the 1969-1971 time period.
The IMM vehicle designs were evaluated against NASA-specified criteria, and two concepts were selected for detailed analysis. the Maneuvering Work Platform (MWP) and the Space Taxi. The preliminary program definition plans were developed for obtaining the MWP flight-qualified hardware in the 1969-1971 time period and 1972-1974 for the Space Taxi.

space taxi schematic x640 1966 7   Space Taxi (Concept)   LTV (American)

•    Space Taxi Configuration
The Space Taxi configuration, selected and recommended for use in 1975 and beyond, features a multiple crew station built into a rotary vehicle which permits orientation of each operator station relative to the worksite. Electrical bilateral master-slave manipulators were selected by AEC/ANL for incorporation into the Space Taxi configuration.
Figure 5-18 presents the preliminary design of the selected Space Taxi concept developed during the detail analysis phase. The basic vehicle consists of a cylindrical, structural shell, the center portion of which is a pressure vessel forming the crew compartment. The upper and lower unpressurized compartments contain vehicle subsystems and equipments. After worksite attachment, the basic taxi is free to turn about its longitudinal axis in rotary fashion. The rotational motion is accomplished with the upper and lower turrets which support the three anchoring and docking arms. Attached to the sides of the Taxi are the two maintenance manipulator slave arms. An Apollo docking adapter and hatch and an extravehicular maintenance egress hatch are provided. A major element inside the crew compartment is the dual function manipulator master controller. It can swing 180deg to serve as the worksite anchoring arm controller and is a bilateral maintenance manipulator controller.
The Space Taxi is designed for one crewman with the capability to carry another man in a rescue situation. The craft would have a range of approximately 1 1/4 miles in any orbital direction. Like the MWP, its normal duration is 8 hours with a rescue contingency of 2 hours. The physical characteristics of the Space Taxi are:
- Overall length* – 150 inches
- Overall width. – 84 inches (maximum)
- Gross weight (nominal)** – dry, 3198 pounds; wet, 3474 pounds.
* Maximum stowage envelope
** Includes 732 pounds for crew systems and tools/ spares
Translation/Stabilization/Control Subsystem
The Space Taxi uses a hybrid stabilization and control system consisting of control moment gyros (CMG) and jet reaction components. Its characteristics are:
Propulsion:
Propellant – Monopropellant hydrazine
Total Impulse – 51,000 lb/sec.
Total deltaV capability – 488 ft/sec.

Stabilization and Control:
Stabilization and Control Deadband -+2deg
Acceleration (maximum)
Angular – Roll – 16.3deg/sec2
Pitch – 15deg/sec2
Yaw – 40deg/sec2
X – .97 ft/sec2
y – .48 ft/sec2
Z – .48 ft/sec2
Number of thrusters – 24 (25 lbs. max. thrust each)
Rotational rates (maximum)
Roll – 13.1deg/sec.
Pitch – 12deg/sec.
Yaw – 31.80deg/sec.
Actuator Subsystem
The actuator subsystem consists of three electrically connected bilateral docking and anchoring arms used for stabilization at the worksite and two electrically connected bilateral manipulators used for tasks at the worksite.
Environmental Control Subsystem
The SpaceTaxi ECS/LS system provides a 5 psia, 70/30 percent, oxygen-nitrogen atmosphere for closed-cabin operation.
ECS/LS Duration – Nominal    8 hours
Contingency, 2 hours
Metabolic Rates – Average    1250 Btu/hr.
Peak    In excess. of 2150 Btu/hr.
Total heat load capability – 47,703 Btu Repreasurization cycles – 2
A Space Taxi weight summary is shown in Table 5-4 [below].

 1966 7   Space Taxi (Concept)   LTV (American)


Goertz ANL unmanned robot configuration   Copy x640 1966 7   Space Taxi (Concept)   LTV (American)

From 1960, Ray Goertz, who invented electrically remote manipulators for the nuclear industry, together with his team at Argonne Nuclear Laboratories (ANL), were engaged by NASA to specify teleoperator configurations for the Lunar space program. The result is illustrated above.

It should be noted that floating vehicles share one problem. This is their inability to stay immobile relative to the object on which they must act. Hence, they are equipped with docking arms, other than the manipulator(s) directly intended to execute the task, to attach them to the object of their task, whether this is another satellite or an underwater oil platform.

The LTV Space Taxi follows this generalized configuration.


Grappler layout and prototype.

LTV podArm02 1966 7   Space Taxi (Concept)   LTV (American)

LTV podArm03 1966 7   Space Taxi (Concept)   LTV (American)

LTV podArm04 1966 7   Space Taxi (Concept)   LTV (American)

LTV podArm05 1966 7   Space Taxi (Concept)   LTV (American)

LTV podArm06 1966 7   Space Taxi (Concept)   LTV (American)

Images sourced from here as original pdf currently unavailable.


See related LTV Space Horse here.

See other early Teleoperators here.

See other early Lunar and Space Robots here.


1966-7 – Space Horse (Concept) – LTV (American)

1967 space horse LTV x640 1966 7   Space Horse (Concept)   LTV (American)

Space Horse – Bearing a strong resemblance to a mechanical horse in this mockup of a Maneuvering Work Platform, an open space-  going tool shop. Design work on tha platform was done under contract to the National Aeronautics and Space Administration's Marshall Spoce Flight Center at Huntsville, Ala., by LTV Aerospace Corporation's Missile and Space Division.

ltv space horse b x640 1966 7   Space Horse (Concept)   LTV (American)

ltv space horse c x640 1966 7   Space Horse (Concept)   LTV (American)

•    Ling-Temco-Vought Maneuvering Work Platform and  Space Taxi
In 1966, Ling-Temco-Vought (LTV), in conjunction with Argonne National Laboratory (ANL), completed a thorough investigation of manned maneuvering manipulator spacecrafts for the NASA Marshall Space Flight Center. The objectives of the LTV program, called the Independent Manned Manipulator (IMM) Study, were as follows
- Produce the conceptual designs and mockups of two selected IMM units which extend and enhance man's utilization in the support of AAP(Apollo Applications Program) experiments and overall areas of EVA(ExtraVehicular Activity) during future space exploration.
- Define Research, Development, and Engineering (RD&E) required to implement the IMM systems.
- Develop preliminary program definition plans which lead to flight-qualified hardware in the 1969-1971 time period.
The IMM vehicle designs were evaluated against NASA-specified criteria, and two concepts were selected for detailed analysis. the Maneuvering Work Platform (MWP) and the Space Taxi. The preliminary program definition plans were developed for obtaining the MWP flight-qualified hardware in the 1969-1971 time period and 1972-1974 for the Space Taxi.
•    MWP Configuration

 1966 7   Space Horse (Concept)   LTV (American)
The MWP configuration selected consists of four basic modules (Figure 5-17b) {RH-same as 4-11 above].
- A forward control
- An aft propulsion module
- A removable tools/spares nodule
- A collapsible cargo frame
The MWP would carry a crew of one and have a rescue capability of approximately 1 1/4 miles in any orbital direction. Its normal duration is 8 hours with a rescue contingency of 2 hours.


The Daily Messenger 22Nov1967 Space Horse x640 1966 7   Space Horse (Concept)   LTV (American)

Source: The Daily Messenger, 22 Nov 1967.

Wilmington News Journal 27Feb1968 LTV Space Horse x640 1966 7   Space Horse (Concept)   LTV (American)

Source: Wilmington News Journal, 27Feb1968


Grand_Prairie_Daily_News_Feb_25_1968

…"Studies continued toward possible use in the Apollo program of the division's [LTV Missile and Space Division] Astronaut Maneuvering Unit, the self-propelled, stabilized back pack unit designed to permit an astronaut in a pressure suit to operate like a one-man space vehicle for assembling and servicing spacecraft in orbit. The division also performed engineering design work on larger extravehicular units, including an open Maneuvering Work Platform described as a spacegoing toolshop and an enclosed version equipped with remotely-controlled manipulators for space tasks."


See other early Teleoperators here.

See other early Lunar and Space Robots here.


1965-7 – Trallfa spray-paint robot – Ole Molaug and Sverre Bergene (Norweigan)

trallfa spray paint robot 1 x640 1965 7   Trallfa spray paint robot    Ole Molaug and Sverre Bergene (Norweigan)

Images and text source from here.

The original name of ABB’s robot factory at Bryne was Trallfa, a company that pioneered development of a robot for spray painting in 1965 – 67. It has its origin in a company manufacturing wheelbarrows, sack trolleys and transport equipment, which was founded in Bryne in 1941 by Nils Underhaug.
Nils Underhaug, a young man from Nærbø, wanted to enter into the automobile repair trade. By the age of 17, he had already created his first automobile, a monster with four bicycle wheels and a 1 ½ horse power engine, which scared the horses in the neighborhood and aroused the surrounding farmers’ disapproval. But it worked! Little did he know then that he would later come to play an important part in the world of the automotive industry.
Nils completed his education and apprenticeship as an auto mechanic and worked for some years repairing automobiles. In 1941 Nils decided to start his own company. Equipped with a case of automobile tools and USD 2000 in the bank, plus an optimistic outlook on life, he started a trolley factory – Trallfa – on February 1, 1941.
Nils started out with only two employees. The factory grew steadily, and soon Trallfa could move into its first real factory building. Wheelbarrows became their specialty. New designs were created, prices lowered and the new wheelbarrows became a great success. The wheelbarrows were painted by hand, and despite the fact that several workers with modern equipment worked in shifts, painting became a bottleneck.
In 1962, Jæren Automation Association, with Nils Underhaug as chairman, employed Ole Molaug as manager. Molaug was a young mechanical engineer from a small place at the farthest end of a fjord in western Norway. After graduating from technical college, he returned to his father’s workshop to earn a living at the wood turning lathe. He early had the idea to use electronic devices on the shop floor, and wondered a lot about constructing a robot. He learned electronics through private
studies. Later he received a grant from the Research Council of Norway to continue his studies.
Molaug brought his robot idea up for Nils Underhaug and were challenged to come up with specific plans for a spray painting robot. Ole studied the spray painting methods at Trallfa and on July 1, 1964, he presented a paper outlining his idea accompanied by a simple sketch, estimating the cost to USD 1500 – 2000. Nils Underhaug gave Ole Molaug the go ahead.
Molaug took charge of the electronics and tool maker Sverre Bergene from Trallfa was entrusted with solving the mechanical and hydraulic challenges. They worked at night and into the small hours, while doing their ordinary work during the day. Even though colleagues began to gossip about “those expensive toys”, they never lost faith.
In the summer of 1966, the robot had progressed far enough to be introduced at the Trallfa stand of the local exhibition “Jærdagen”. There it executed profile drawings, and crowds gathered to see this strange contraption performing.
So far so good, but would it really work? The opportunity came in February, 1967, when the robot had a trial run at the conveyor in the factory’s paint shop. Nils Underhaug had the honor of pressing the button to start the robot. Start it did, and painted wheelbarrow boxes passing along the conveyor – one after the other. The results were excellent.

trallfa spray paint robot 0 x640 1965 7   Trallfa spray paint robot    Ole Molaug and Sverre Bergene (Norweigan)
To make a long story short, Trallfa decided to go into production with its robot. In 1969 the first industrial spray painting robot were delivered to Sweden for bath tub enameling. The company established itself early as the leading supplier of robots for spray painting applications, as it still is today in ABB.


trallfa robot history 1 x640 1965 7   Trallfa spray paint robot    Ole Molaug and Sverre Bergene (Norweigan)

Also, Ccontributed greatly on the electronics side.

trallfa robot history 2 x640 1965 7   Trallfa spray paint robot    Ole Molaug and Sverre Bergene (Norweigan)

trallfa prod 2 x640 1965 7   Trallfa spray paint robot    Ole Molaug and Sverre Bergene (Norweigan)

trallfa prod x640 1965 7   Trallfa spray paint robot    Ole Molaug and Sverre Bergene (Norweigan)

trallfa hydraulic robot x640 1965 7   Trallfa spray paint robot    Ole Molaug and Sverre Bergene (Norweigan)

devilbiss trallfa 70s 1 x640 1965 7   Trallfa spray paint robot    Ole Molaug and Sverre Bergene (Norweigan)

The above images from Tormod Henne, December 2009 book on the history of ABB robots.


Ole Molaug robot 1 1965 7   Trallfa spray paint robot    Ole Molaug and Sverre Bergene (Norweigan)

Ole Molaug


1967 – “Lunar Leaper” – Dr. Howard S. Seifert et al (American)

lunar hopper x640 1967   Lunar Leaper   Dr. Howard S. Seifert et al (American)

Taking 400-foot 15-second hops, lunar "pogo sticks" could most forward at about 20 miles an hour—much faster than the four to five miles an hour 
of vehicles now being considered for moon exploration. The moon leaper was devised by Dr. Howard S. Seifert, scientist at the United Technology Center at Sunnyvale, Calif. This artist's concept shows lunar Ieapers in action, with the twin cabins in various positions for takeoff, flight and landing. 
—AP Newsfeatures Photo.

Source: Reading Eagle 29 Jan 1967

Lunar Leaper Is Designed By Scientist
Sunnyvale, Calif. (AP)—The best vehicle for exploring the moon, once man was landed, may be a kind of pogo stick making 400-foot hops among the craters.
Dr. Howard S. Seifert, United Technology Center scientist subs also teaches at Stanford University, has worked out concepts for such a vehicle. He's serious.
Dr. Seifert has talked with others in the field and with various government agencies. including NASA. and says he has found a high degree of interest in the novel idea.
The monopod, moon hopper or lunar leaper—you name it—would consist of a 40-foot hollow pole between two cabins. The cabins—one carrying a pilot and a passenger, the other containing power plant, flight control equipment and a life support system — would ride up and down the pole on a cushion of compressed gas.
'Hop' Explained
As Seifert envisions it, a moon hop would start with the cabin structure resting rear the bottom of the pole. Pressure of gas against a piston would force the structure 30 feet up the pole, where it would lock in place, carrying the pole on upward with it on a ballistic trajectory.
The pole would be leaning forward at 45 degrees to the lunar surface at the start of the 400-foot, 15-second hop. Midway in flight, the lower end would swing forward in preparation for landing, when a big traction foot would contact the surface and the cabins would slide downward. compressing the gas again for the next leap.
The traction foot, the point of contact of the pole with the lunar surface, would be light, flexible. cleated and probably at least four feet across. It would be designed, Dr. Seifert said. to reduce bearing loads to acceptable values for the lunar soil.
Short Hops
The pole's momentum would swing it to position for the nest take-off during the one to two seconds between hops.
The craft would move forward at about 20 miles per hour, Seifert said.
This compares with a limit of four to five miles an hour for walking or wheeled vehicles now being considered for moon transport.
Seifert pointed to nature's hoppers—the kangaroo, rabbit, grasshopper and flea, among others.
"It would seem reasonable that matters and energy could be combined by man to create an efficient hopping transportation system on the moon," he said.
"Successful use of this system depends upon a lunar surface sufficiently free of large rocks and strong enough to support the vehicle."
Moon information accumulated thus far, mainly through photographs, indicates much of the terrain would be suitable for hopper travel, he said.
Paired gyroscopes would keep the cabins level and the pole correctly angled even if the foot skidded while landing on a sloping surface, Seifert said. Around the 200-foot-high apex of one jump, the pilot would select his landing point, using a computer and bomb-sight type device to pick a suitable bouncing spot.
Seifert said power would be supplied by a relatively small gas generator enabling the craft to move forward eight or nine miles on a gallon of standard fuel—"tremendously better than a rocket in that respect."
To Regain Energy
Once started. the hopper would regain about 80 per cent of its expanded energy in each gas compressing bounce-down, he explained. The bouncing mode of travel—with about 10 seconds of each hop bring spent above 100 feet—would aid observation and exploration, Seifert believes.
The scientist is a past president of the American Rocket Society and has served as vice president of the International Astronautical Federation and director of the American Institute of Aeronautics and Astronautics. He is the author of more than 30 papers on liquid, solid and nuclear rocket motor development and guided missile systems.
His moon hopper concept could be tested on earth, Seifert said, and colleagues at Stanford have expressed great interest in working out the system.
"Friends have said they'd like to test hop such a vehicle around a football field," Seifert said.

lunar hopper 2 x640 1967   Lunar Leaper   Dr. Howard S. Seifert et al (American)

Artists Concert Illustration


 1967   Lunar Leaper   Dr. Howard S. Seifert et al (American)

Source: Popular Science, March 1969


Officially called "The Lunar Hopping Transporter", although attributed to Seifert, there were quite a few people involved in the research project for NASA for the Apollo Moon Mission program.

All is revealed in this 1971 Final Report to NASA

 1967   Lunar Leaper   Dr. Howard S. Seifert et al (American)

 1967   Lunar Leaper   Dr. Howard S. Seifert et al (American)

Computer simulation of the Lunar Leaper.

 1967   Lunar Leaper   Dr. Howard S. Seifert et al (American)

 1967   Lunar Leaper   Dr. Howard S. Seifert et al (American)

The Demonstration model in 'flight'.

 1967   Lunar Leaper   Dr. Howard S. Seifert et al (American)

Seifert's concept for an Unmanned Hopper.


Note: The Hermann Oberth "Moon Car" of 1956 is incorrectly attributed to Seifert's Lunar Leaper.