1878 – Diving Suit – Carmagnolle Bros. (French)

Scaphandre Carmagnolle MnM Paris x640 1878   Diving Suit   Carmagnolle Bros. (French)

1878 – Diving Suit by the Carmagnolle Bros.

The suit was the first truly anthropomorphic suit design to be constructed.

A distinctive feature of the Carmagnolle suit was the helmet. It had 25 individual two-inch diameter glass viewing ports spaced at the average distance of the human eyes. An additional port at the top of the helmet could be removed to ventilate the suit when at the surface. The Carmagnolle suit is on display at the National Maritime Museum in Paris.

2350473 french oceanographer jacques cousteau stands gettyim x640 1878   Diving Suit   Carmagnolle Bros. (French)

Jaques Cousteau posing with a Carmagnolle Bros. Diving Suit.

carmagnolle 6 x640 1878   Diving Suit   Carmagnolle Bros. (French)

Rear view.

carmagnolle 7 x640 1878   Diving Suit   Carmagnolle Bros. (French)

carmagnolle 1878 x640 1878   Diving Suit   Carmagnolle Bros. (French)

Two French inventors, brothers Alphonse and Theodore Carmagnolle of Marseilles, France, were granted a patent for an armored diving dress in 1882 (Filed 1878). The joints were made of partial sections of concentric spheres formed to create a close fit and intended to be kept watertight with a loop of waterproof cloth attached to both sections of the joint and folded so as to slide upon itself when the joint was moved. The suit had no less than 22 of these rolling convolute joints; four in each leg, six per arm, and two in the body of the suit.

Inventors: Alphonse and Theodore Carmagnolle

Patent FR132761
Filed: 1878.
Granted: December 20, 1882

(Note: Cyberneticzoo – I have been unsucessful in locating this patent. However I did locate a later patent to Alphonse.)

Source: www.divingheritage.com


Inventor: Alphonse Carmagnolle

Patent FR339030

Filed: September 10, 1904
Granted: October 18, 1904

carmagnolle pat FR339030 f1 x640 1878   Diving Suit   Carmagnolle Bros. (French)

carmagnolle pat FR339030 f2 x640 1878   Diving Suit   Carmagnolle Bros. (French)

carmagnolle pat FR339030 f3 x640 1878   Diving Suit   Carmagnolle Bros. (French)

carmagnolle pat FR339030 f4 x640 1878   Diving Suit   Carmagnolle Bros. (French)

carmagnolle pat FR339030 f5 x640 1878   Diving Suit   Carmagnolle Bros. (French)


deep dive suit print x640 1878   Diving Suit   Carmagnolle Bros. (French)

The Carmagnolle Suit inspired "Big Daddy" from the game Bioshock.

big daddy bioshock game x640 1878   Diving Suit   Carmagnolle Bros. (French)

A sculpture of "Big Daddy".


For a more complete story on Phillips, see here.

See other early Underwater Robots here.


1856 – Phillips Submarine Exploring Armor – Lodner Phillips (American)

The Phillips patent is the first known "Armored Diving Suit". There is no evidence yet found that suggests that Phillips actually built his suit, although he did build an earlier submarine. 

phillips armor suit 1 1856   Phillips Submarine Exploring Armor   Lodner Phillips (American)

Many features of the design will be seen in similar more successful suits over a half century later.

phillips armor suit 2 1856   Phillips Submarine Exploring Armor   Lodner Phillips (American)

Note the additional manipulators projecting from the waist that extended the operator's reach.

Publication number US15898 A
Publication type Grant
Publication date Oct 14, 1856
Inventor Lodner D. Phillips

Submarine Armor or Exploring Apparatus

In general my invention relates to the construction of a metallic vessel or apparatus so apportioned, arranged and equipped with tools or instruments for sub-marine explorations, and of proper form to admit a man in its principal cavity, and in furnishing such metallic casing with air chambers and other apparatus for the convenience and safety of the person operating the same; also suitable joints of peculiar construction to allow the free use of the legs and arms of the operator; also attachments by means of which the operator can ascend, or descend, or change his position and give locomotion to the machine` without assistance from others.  

The advantages of this machine over all others are, first, the operator is freed from all pressure of water at any depth; secondly, he has ample locomotive control over the apparatus; thirdly, he can ascend to the surface on his own account and without the assistance from others.


Lodner D. Phillips, a former shoemaker turned engineer, designed and built a submarine for marine salvage in the Great Lakes in 1850. Called the Marine Cigar, it sank in 1853. During the Civil War, he offered his designs, which included guns attached to the submarine, to the US Navy.

Source: Misadventures of a Civil War Submarine: Iron, Guns, and Pearls by James Delgado, 2012.


For a more complete story on Phillips, see here.

See other early Underwater Robots here.


1912 – Dreadnought Wheel and “Big Lizzie” – Frank Bottrill (Australian)

b076 12 x640 1912   Dreadnought Wheel and Big Lizzie   Frank Bottrill (Australian)

1912 – Dreadnought Wheel and "Big Lizzie" – Frank Bottrill

A dreadnaught wheel is a wheel with articulated rails attached at the rim to provide a firm footing for the wheel to roll over, they have also been known as endless railway wheels when fitted to road locomotives, and were commonly fitted to steam traction engines.

Prior to wide adoption of continuous track on vehicles, traction engines were cumbersome and not suited to crossing soft ground or the rough roads and farm tracks of the time. The "endless rails" were flat boards or steel plates loosely attached around the outer circumference of the wheel which spread the weight of the vehicle over a larger surface and hence were less likely to get bogged by sinking into soft ground or skidding on slippery tracks.

Some references also use the term pedrail, but the pedrail wheel of 1903 is a more complex arrangement that incorporates internal springing.

Bottrill referred to the rails as "ped-rail shoes".

[Note: Where text is from another source, I've left to spelling of "Dreadnought" as is i.e. "Dreadnaught", which has become the more popular spelling.]

Big Lizzie vs land rover x640 1912   Dreadnought Wheel and Big Lizzie   Frank Bottrill (Australian)

"Big Lizzie" at Red Cliffs, Victoria, Australia.

biglizziedetail1 640x480 x640 1912   Dreadnought Wheel and Big Lizzie   Frank Bottrill (Australian)

Children looking at one of "Big Lizzie's" massive wheels.

Bottrill2 x640 1912   Dreadnought Wheel and Big Lizzie   Frank Bottrill (Australian)

Image from Bottrill's British patent GB191208844 (A) ― 1912-10-17 .

bottril lizzie 3a x640 1912   Dreadnought Wheel and Big Lizzie   Frank Bottrill (Australian)

The smaller Austral-Otis Bottrill-wheeled tractor c1911.

bottril lizzie 3b x640 1912   Dreadnought Wheel and Big Lizzie   Frank Bottrill (Australian)

Image source: Remarkable Australian Farm Machines: Ingenuity on the Land  By Graeme R. Quick

bottril lizzie 3 x640 1912   Dreadnought Wheel and Big Lizzie   Frank Bottrill (Australian)
From `Megaethon' to 'Big Lizzie':
Attempts to go where the roads do not
MOVING A HEAVY vehicle across country can have its problems. Unless the ground is very solid, the vehicle is likely to dig itself in and resist all attempts to move it further. Mud, sand and dust can all cause this.
The obvious solution is to increase the bearing surface in some way, so the wheels are less likely to dig their way into the ground under the vehicle's weight. If the vehicle can lay its own bearing surface in front of itself, then pick it up again after it has passed over it, so much the better.
One early attempt at this approach occurred in 1850 when a Hunter Valley farmer named Cleve had a steam engine built in Sydney. He decided to take it home under its own power on the iron shoes it laid down in succession in front of its wheels. Cleve called his machine the `Megaethon', but the Aborigines who saw it called it the 'buggy buggy'.
Eventually Cleve had to get some bullock teams to come and rescue his engine. Its great weight made its progress very difficult.
The idea cropped up again when steam-driven traction engines be common in Australia, about the turn of the century. Used to haul wagons across country, for ploughing and for stationary power at all sorts of locations, these machines faced the need to travel across country in all sorts of conditions. In 1906, Frank Bottrill patented 'an improved road wheel for vehicles and travelling machines, especially useful for traction engines'. He called it the Pedrail or Dreadnought wheel.
As Bottrill's wheel rotated it placed a series of bearers one at a time upon the ground. Each bearer formed a substantial flat bed while it was on the ground and prevented the wheel from sinking. The engine was therefore able to exert its full tractive effort. For use in very loose ground the bearers could be fitted with studs.
Some versions of Bottrill's wheel had two sets of bearers side by side. The bearers were attached to the wheel by a system of U-bolts and wire ropes that allowed them to move in relation to the wheel, but kept them rotating with it.
In 1907 Bottrill used a 30-horsepower International tractor fitted with his

big lizzie red cliffs x640 1912   Dreadnought Wheel and Big Lizzie   Frank Bottrill (Australian) 

Big Lizzie in her last resting place at Red Cliffs, Victoria.

Pedrail wheels to plough 202 hectares of mallee land for the Victorian Department of Agriculture and 38 hectares of virgin country at Howard's Plain, Victoria. Then he used a 70-horsepower McLaren traction engine with Pedrail wheels on a large-scale land-clearing operation at Tintinara for the South Australian Government. He pulled three large rollers covering a span of 18 metres and cleared an average of 12 hectares a day, and sometimes as many as 20 hectares. Later the South Australian Government bought rights from Bottrill to fit two of its steam tractors with his wheels. The Queensland Government also arranged to fit them to some of its equipment.
In World War I, the Australian Light Horse in Egypt had the Pedrail system fitted to its field guns so it could haul them across the desert. The heavy sand made transport of the guns on their ordinary wheels quite impracticable, and for a time General Chauvel was forced to conduct a mounted campaign against the Turks without artillery support. Once the Pedrail was adapted for desert conditions and fitted to the guns, the problem was overcome. Guns fitted with Pedrails were first used in the attack on Salmana in May 1916.
Bottrill's best known application of his Pedrail was to Big Lizzie, a giant traction engine now on display at Red Cliffs in Victoria's Sunraysia district. The massive machine, powered by a 60-horsepower Blackstone crude oil engine, was built in Melbourne in 1914. Its range of gears gave it four forward speeds from 0.8 to 3.2 km/h, and two reverse speeds, 0.4 and 0.8 km/h.

bottrill wheel ww1y x640 1912   Dreadnought Wheel and Big Lizzie   Frank Bottrill (Australian)

Until Bottrill style wheels were fitted to artillery in the Middle East during World War I, the Australia Light Horse had to attack fortified Turkish positions without artillery support.

Big Lizzie set out from Melbourne in 1915 and went via Echuca, Kerang, Swan Hill, Ouyen and Mildura. Everywhere she went, her owners had to get permission from the various shires. From Ouyen she travelled along a bush track made by bullock waggons beside the railway. This was the only road. Where the turns in the track were too sharp for her 61 metre turning circle, Big Lizzie just made her own track through the mallee scrub. Her big wheels carried her across even the sandiest country. She had a six weeks stop-over in Kerang while all her wheels were taken off and altered.
Big Lizzie arrived in Mildura in October 1917. She was unable to cross the Murray, which was in flood. No bridge or punt could carry her, so she went to work in the district, carrying wheat, one 1919 load running to 900 bags.
Big Lizzie herself was 10.2 m long, 3.4 m wide and 5.5 m high. She had two flat top trailers, each fitted with Bottrill wheels. Each trailer was 10m long, 3.4 m wide and 2m high.
When the Victorian Government decided to make farms for soldier settlers in the Sunraysia area during and after World War I, Big Lizzie helped clear land at South Merbein, West Merbein, Birdwoodton and Red Cliffs, a task that lasted until 1924. She cleared land in other parts of Victoria until 1929, when she was abandoned.
She was finally brought back and given her place of honour at Red Cliffs.

Source: Australian Inventory, Leo Port with Brian Murray.


Burrell Boydell tractor dreadnaught x640 1912   Dreadnought Wheel and Big Lizzie   Frank Bottrill (Australian)

An early version was patented (British 11,357) by James Boydell in August 1846 and February 1854. Boydell worked with the British steam traction engine manufacturer Charles Burrell & Sons to produce road haulage engines from 1856 that used his continuous track design. Burrell later patented refinements of Boydell's design.

Boydell's design saw service with the British Army in the Crimean War where it was known as "The Megatherium war horse".

Source with references: Wiki


See other early Walking Wheels and  Walking Machines here.


1899 – Walking Wheel – James C. Anderson (American)

1899 – Walking Wheel patent by James C. Anderson

anderson walking wheel pat 1899   Walking Wheel   James C. Anderson (American)

Publication number    US647245 A
Publication type    Grant
Publication date    Apr 10, 1900
Filing date    Aug 16, 1899
Priority date    Aug 16, 1899
Inventors    James C Anderson
Original Assignee    James C Anderson

My invention relates to certain new and useful improvements in wheels for use upon vehicles propelled on roadways by mechanical power, and particularly to that class known as "autotrucks," which are designed for carrying heavy loads.

In the use of wheels upon vehicles propelled by animal motive force it is well understood that the area of traction is the tangential contact between the periphery of the tire multiplied by its width, and the tangential contact is governed entirely by the physical character of the material of which the tire is composed. This contact is of course lessened when the profile or inequalities of the roadbed transverse to the path of the wheel are such that only a portion of the width ot the tire comes in contact with the road.

In a vehicle drawn by animal motive force the traction area of the wheel is of comparatively little moment, because the anatomical movements of the animal compensate for the small degree of traction in the vehicle. In other words, in such cases the wheel constitutes a lever to which the physical power of the draft-animal is applied, and nature, recognizing these conditions, has so constructed the hoofs of draft-animals that in contact with a road way a comparatively-large area of traction is secured. For instance, this traction area with the hoof of an ordinary horse is about thirty square inches, while in a tire, say, two inches wide and composed of resilient material, such as rubber, and assuming that the tire flattens to half an inch, the total area of traction would be but one inch. The articulative joints also of the legs of the animal are such that the hoofs accommodate themselves to the uneven surface of the road to maintain the necessary area of contact, and such contact is preserved in the case of each hoof until the animal has moved forward a distance equal to one step or stride, and hence the push on the traction area is maintained to a similar extent, and thus it is that with this large amount of traction and the toggle action of the legs of a horse he is enabled to draw a heavy load. It has been the recognition of this principle in the application of the physical force of an animal that in the coustruction of autotruck-wheels they have been devised with excessively wide and resilient tires in order to secure as much traction as possible; but the limit in the width of tires of this kind is such, owing to their weight and cost, that a sufficient amount of traction cannot be secured for the best results.

anderson walking wheel pat 2 1899   Walking Wheel   James C. Anderson (American)

Each leg had a pneumatic piston acting as a damper over bumps and irregular ground.


See other early Walking Wheels and  Walking Machines here.


1846 – Walking Wheel – James Boydell (British)

boydell traction wheel x640 1846   Walking Wheel   James Boydell (British)

1846 – Walking Wheel by James Boydell

A dreadnaught wheel is a wheel with articulated rails attached at the rim to provide a firm footing for the wheel to roll over, they have also been known as endless railway wheels when fitted to road locomotives, and were commonly fitted to steam traction engines.
Bottrill's "Big Lizzie" with Dreadnaught wheels

Prior to wide adoption of continuous track on vehicles, traction engines were cumbersome and not suited to crossing soft ground or the rough roads and farm tracks of the time. The "endless rails" were flat boards or steel plates loosely attached around the outer circumference of the wheel which spread the weight of the vehicle over a larger surface and hence were less likely to get bogged by sinking into soft ground or skidding on slippery tracks.

Some references also use the term pedrail, but the pedrail wheel of 1903 is a more complex arrangement that incorporates internal springing.

Bottrill referred to the rails as "ped-rail shoes".

Boydell tractor dreadnaught x640 1846   Walking Wheel   James Boydell (British)

Image source: Remarkable Australian Farm Machines: Ingenuity on the Land  By Graeme R. Quick

Burrell Boydell tractor dreadnaught x640 1846   Walking Wheel   James Boydell (British)

An early version was patented (British 11,357) by James Boydell in August 1846 and February 1854. Boydell worked with the British steam traction engine manufacturer Charles Burrell & Sons to produce road haulage engines from 1856 that used his continuous track design. Burrell later patented refinements of Boydell's design.

Boydell's design saw service with the British Army in the Crimean War where it was known as "The Megatherium war horse".

Source with references: Wiki


See other early Walking Wheels and  Walking Machines here.