1969 – NR-1 Submersible – General Dynamics (American)

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1969 – NR-1 Submersible by General Dynamics.

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Early design sketch of the NR-1 sub.

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Builder: General Dynamics Electric Boat
Laid down: 10 June 1967
Launched: 25 January 1969

Source: Wikipedia
NR-1 is able to land on the seafloor on a pair of retractable wheels and can lift heavy objects with a manipulator arm system. NR-1's major strength, however, is the ability to provide a stable platform and abundant electric power for surveillance missions of two weeks or longer.

The custom-built, one-of-a-kind vessel carried no weapons, measured just 140 ft and travelled at just four knots, but held ten men for up to a month at a time.

It was a pet project of Admiral Hyman Rickover, the 'father of the nuclear Navy', and contained a custom-built mini nuclear reactor which powered it as deep as 3,000 feet.

Once on the sea bed, it had wheels and lights to explore the ocean floor.

It was mainly a research sub, but also performed Cold War military missions which remain highly classified.


See also Simon Lake's 1931 "Explorer"  as an earlier example of a submersible on wheels!

See other early Underwater Robots here.


1923 – EPRON-1 Humidistat – E. G. Danilenko (Russian)

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1923 – EPRON-1 Humidistat – E. G. Danilenko.

Гидростат Даниленко Е.Г. «ЭПРОН-1»

Source: here.

Original text by Alexey Rasshivalov, translated to English by Google translate.


The first domestic ( and second in the world) DHD humidistat , better known as " EPRON -1 ." Built in 1923, the project EG Danilenko .
Heavy machine to 5 divers with the maximum depth of 150 meters. I had the external lamp arm system and emergency ascent in case of cable break . Successfully exploited , but because of the weight of 10 tons require special vessel carrier .
For very young EPRON colleagues – is " underwater expedition special purpose ." It is a division of the OGPU (future NKVD , the KGB and current FSB) .
In EPRON were gathered talented and very workable enthusiasts. About such people in my time saying, "impossibly hardworking, devoted to the submarine to the extreme and Soviet power to the limit." Since the GPU was quite a well-deserved (and rather bloody) the reputation of the office, in principle, is not interested in "human rights", etc. heresy, then the work under her leadership were quickly and thoroughly. But, like any intelligence agency, the OGPU to classify all manner of suffering, so the materials of "EPRON-1" has remained very little.

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Гидростат Евгения Даниленко готовится к погружению. 1923 г.
Hydrostat Eugene Danilenko preparing to dive . 1923

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Source: http://coollib.com/b/276959/read

Идею Гартмана развил российский инженер Е.Г. Даниленко. В 1923 г., по заданию ЭПРОНа он сконструировал и построил на одном из московских заводов гидростат на трех человек (рис. 53). Аппарат был рассчитан на глубину 120 м и имел систему жизнеобеспечения, телефон, светильники и выдвигающиеся манипуляторы для работ за бортом. С помощью гидростата Даниленко был найден легендарный «Принц» (названный в народе «Черным принцем»), был накоплен уникальный опыт применения подобных аппаратов для поиска и осмотра затонувших объектов. Именно из этого гидростата основоположник геологии моря Мария Васильевна Кленова впервые наблюдала дно моря и работу дистанционной трубки для взятия проб грунта, положив начало регулярным исследованиям из подводных аппаратов.Идею Гартмана развил российский инженер Е.Г. Даниленко. В 1923 г., по заданию ЭПРОНа он сконструировал и построил на одном из московских заводов гидростат на трех человек (рис. 53). Аппарат был рассчитан на глубину 120 м и имел систему жизнеобеспечения, телефон, светильники и выдвигающиеся манипуляторы для работ за бортом. С помощью гидростата Даниленко был найден легендарный «Принц» (названный в народе «Черным принцем»), был накоплен уникальный опыт применения подобных аппаратов для поиска и осмотра затонувших объектов. Именно из этого гидростата основоположник геологии моря Мария Васильевна Кленова впервые наблюдала дно моря и работу дистанционной трубки для взятия проб грунта, положив начало регулярным исследованиям из подводных аппаратов.

English translation via Google

Hartmann has developed the idea of ​​a Russian engineer EG Danilenko . In 1923 , on the instructions of EPRON he designed and built at a Moscow factory humidistat for three people (Fig . 53-see top ) .
The device was designed for 120 m depth and had a life-support system, telephone, lights and retractable handles to work behind. With hydrostatic Danilenko was found the legendary "Prince" (popularly called the "Black Prince"), it was a unique experience of using such devices for search and examination of wrecks. It is from this hydrostatic founder of marine geology Mariya Klenow first watched the sea bottom and work the remote pipes for soil sampling, initiating regular surveys of underwater vehicles.

Гидростат Даниленко Е.Г. «ЭПРОН-1» оказался слишком тяжёл и неудобен в работе, манипуляторное устройство было неработоспособно и мешало спуско-подъёмным работам.

Hydrostat EG Danilenko " EPRON -1 " was too heavy and uncomfortable to work Manipulative equipment has been inefficient and prevented the lowering and lifting works .

Гидростат ЭПРОН-1 Весной 1923 года инженер Даниленко Е.Г. представил в Научно-технический отдел ВСНХ проект гидростата, который он назвал своими инициалами – ЕГД, но впоследствии этот аппарат получил официальное название ЭПРОН-1. НТО, в течение месяца, выдало положительное заключение и к середине лета на заводе «Парострой» в Москве, под руководством инженера Шухова В.Г. был построен корпус гидростата и отправлен в Севастополь для окончательной сборки.

Hydrostat EPRON 1 Spring 1923 Engineer EG Danilenko submitted to the Scientific and Technical Department of the Supreme Economic Council draft humidistat , which he called his initials – DHD , but later this unit was officially named EPRON -1 . NTO , within a month , and issued a positive opinion to the middle of the summer at the " Parostroy " in Moscow , under the direction of engineer VG Shukhov It was built housing for hydrostatic and sent to Sevastopol for final assembly .

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See other early Underwater Robots here.


1978 – ARMS 1 – Oceaneering (American)

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1978 – ARMS 1 (Atmospheric Roving Manipulator System)

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As early as 1971, Dr. Norman H. Wood, program engineer for General Electric's Cybernetic Automation & Mechanization Systems Section, described a new underwater manipulator system devised for use on a multi-well submerged platform. GE's activities in manipulators date back to the company's nuclear power development and space projects. It was a development based on the G.E. Model M-2 Manipulator Arm.

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In 1974, Oceaneering International, Inc., of Houston started developing a 3,000 ft. two-man diving bell jointly developed by Perry Oceanographies, General Electric Company and Oceaneering themselves. Called the Atmospheric Roving Manipulator System (ARMS), which would use an advanced capability force-feedback manipulator featuring a seven function master arm inside a manned submersible and a slave working arm outside that provides “feel” to the operator, from the Re-entry & Environmental Systems Div., General Electric Co., Philadelphia. GE reports "With the G.E. underwater force-feedback manipulator, the operator no longer has to rely on the sometimes difficult decision making processes".

G.E. call their system the Diver Equivalent Manipulator System (DEMS), which can be operated from the inside or from the surface. The arm reaches over 5 ft and can handle 65 lb with only 5 lb of operator hand pressure. This manipulator system has six degrees of freedom plus a grip. If the slave holds a 65 pound weight the operator "feels" a smaller, 5 pound weight (DEMS has 13:1 force ratio). By responding to the force feedback, the operator allows the manipulator to comply to external forces.

The bell is a 72" sphere, designed to accommodate two people, with an emergency support capability of up to five days.

The GE arm system has a reach of 1.6 metres, 29.5 kg rated load and operates to a depth of 1829 m.

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Oceaneering International took delivery on the Perry-built, one-atmosphere vehicle ARMS in late 1976 and was first demonstrated in March 1977.

In 1978, ARMS-I, mainly employed for deepwater drill rig support, was in service on the Ben Ocean Lancer drillship in the Gulf of Mexico.
In the 1980's, Oceaneering renamed ARMS and was now called Ocean-Arms Bells.

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The "Aluminaut" also employed G.E. force-feedback arms.


From: Phil Nuytten : Source: here.
To: personal_submersibles
Sent: Fri, Nov 18, 2011 4:46 pm
Subject: Re: [PSUBS-MAILIST] Anyone Know Tom Pado or Total Marine Technology?

All: Yup, I know Tom Pado – he used to work for us at Oceaneering International Inc. He and John Fike were the lead pilots on a series of 3,000 foot rated thruster/manipulator bells designed for offshore oil related work – the series was called 'Ocean Arms' and Perry built Arms 1 through 3, We built 'Arms 4' here in B.C. and it's still here – out in the boneyard. The thruster bells were really only a piloted delivery system for the G.E. force-feedback, spatially compliant manipulator arm. (O.I.I. owned all rights to the G.E. arm – the rights were purchased from General Electric – it was used in their 'Man-mate' program.) The G.E. arm was, in my opinion, the best manipulator arm ever made – right up to current time. Biggest problem was cost – about $250,000 per arm and controllers. I used this system many times and it was superb!
Phil


General Electric's Re-entry & Environmental Systems Division later became Western Space and Marine.


See other early Underwater Robots here.

See other G.E. CAMS here:

1956- GE Yes Man
1958-9- GE Handyman – Ralph Mosher
1969 – GE Walking Truck – Ralph Mosher
1965-71- GE Hardiman I
1969- GE Man-Mate Industrial manipulator

1973 – Under Sea Mobility – Ralph Mosher (American)

Underwater Army Bases and Depot (See Figure 51: Under Sea Mobility)
Recent marine biology and ocean engineering work have resulted in some startling underwater activity concepts and systems designs that promise to pave the way to a profitable exploitation of untapped water resources. It is not difficult to argue that before this decade has passed the Army, as well as the Navy, will be involved in exploiting and protecting our underwater territory.
Already, large oil companies are competing for underwater rights for oil well operations. The United States government is the guardian of this territory and has the specific operational guidelines. Petroleum industries are currently designing huge and complex underwater oil mining operations. The author predicts that some day in the near future they will operate their own underwater stations. There are obvious advantages to this foray into our underwater territory.
The petroleum industries have found that to operate these underwater complexes they need transportation and mobility. They have design vehicles that travel from the surface down to the site and are able to do work by means of underwater manipulators. It follows that a necessary and valuable tool for underwater work will be unusual vehicles that can provide the ability for man to work remotely as he would on earth directly. The illustration in Figure 51 of this unusual underwater vehicle is a concept that might not ever be realized. However, it is predicted that the elements of this concept, the legs, and the manipulator arms, and the man's ability to operate the vehicle from within, are concepts that will be used to provide the kind of functions illustrated.

From: Technical Report Number 11768, Applying Force Feedback Servomechanism Technology To Mobility Platforms, Ralph Mosher, 1973.


The earlier G.E. Pedipulator concept dates back to 1962-64.

Land-based concepts done 1962, test Pedipulator demonstrated in 1964. It was never completed as a proposal for a more useful quadruped was put forward and accepted (see here ).


See other early Underwater Robots here.

See other G.E. CAMS here:

1956- GE Yes Man
1958-9- GE Handyman – Ralph Mosher
1969 – GE Walking Truck – Ralph Mosher
1965-71- GE Hardiman I
1969- GE Man-Mate Industrial manipulator

1971 – Trieste II Submersible – (American)

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1971 – Trieste II Submersible with Manipulator Arm.

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DSV-1 Trieste II

When the submarine Thresher was lost on 10 April 1963, a committee established under Admiral Stephan [the Oceanographer of the Navy] to assess the implications of the accident concluded that the Navy did not have the operational assets to conduct missions in the deep sea. The loss of the Thresher was a wake up call for the Navy. A summary of the Thresher search operation in 1965 highlighting the Navy's inadequacy in deep-sea search, location, and rescue noted that the tragedy "demonstrated only too clearly the degree of ignorance and inability which surrounded the entire business."

To rectify this deficiency the Deep Submergence Systems Project, initially assigned to the Special Projects Office responsible for developing the Polaris Fleet Ballistic Missile System, was established to develop deep ocean capabilities. Subsequently other associated development programs were assigned to the Deep Submergence Systems Project office, including the development of the NR-1 nuclear powered research submarine. The intelligence community also established Deep Submergence development requirements.

A decision was made to build a second bathyscaphe, Trieste II, with the original Trieste assigned to the Deep Submergence Systems Project to test equipment that would be employed on other deep submergence systems. The new Trieste II, built at the Mare Island Naval Shipyard in September 1965, was a more sophisticated craft capable of clandestine operations in the deep ocean. DSV-1 Trieste II was designed by the Naval Electronic Laboratory, San Diego, CA, as a successor to Trieste -the Navy's pioneer bathyscaph. Trieste II incorporated the Terni, Italian-built sphere used in Trieste with an entirely new bathyscaph float-one more seaworthy and streamlined. Controlled from the pressure-resistant sphere on the underside, Trieste II was equipped with cameras, sonars, and sensors for scientific observation at great depths. Her instrumentation could be varied to suit the mission in hand. Completed in early 1964, conducted dives in the vicinity of the loss site of Thresher – operations commenced by the first Trieste the year before. She recovered bits of wreckage, positively fixing the remains as that of the lost Thresher, in September 1964.

Subsequently shipped back to San Diego, Trieste II underwent a series of modifications until April 1965, when she was launched on 19 April to undertake the first of many dives as test and training vehicle for the Navy's new deep submergence program. After a series of dives off San Diego, Trieste II underwent further modifications at Mare Island to improve the craft's undersea navigation, control, and small object recovery. When the Scorpion was lost on 22 May 1968, the previously unacknowledged Trieste II was used by the Navy to carry out the investigation.

This unique craft was listed only as "equipment" in the Navy inventory until the autumn of 1969. On 1 September 1969, Trieste II was placed in service, with the hull number X-l. Reclassified as a deep submergence vehicle (DSV) on 1 June 1971, Trieste II (DSV-1) continued her active service in the Pacific Fleet into 1980, and in May 1984 she was assigned to Submarine Development Group 1. She was moved to the Keyport Naval Undersea Warfare Center in 1985. Trieste II made dives as deep as 20,000 feet.

Source: here.

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Excerpt by Don Walsh.
Navy Electronics Laboratory (NEL) in San Diego.
Trieste was retired in 1963 at the age of ten, after it had returned to NEL from working at the site where Thresher (SSN-598) had been lost. At least two other versions of Trieste, all named "Trieste II", served with the Navy until 1982. With the retirement of Trieste II the world’s last bathyscaph was gone, since Archimede had been retired in the late 1970s

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Artists illustration showing another manipulator arm. This arm was commissioned when Trieste II was in DSV-1 guise [Deep Submergence Vehicle-1].

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As well as the manipulator arm, Trieste II had a Grapple Hook mounted up front on the bow.

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See Trieste [I] here.

See other early Underwater Robots here.