1968 – North-2 (Sever-2) Submersible – (Soviet)

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Folded manipulator arm.

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Submersibles North- 2 project in 1825 Translated from Russian with errors.
Posted to "defend Russia" about the first domestic deep self -propelled unit for the study of the World Ocean Project 1825 , is designed to carry out scientific research in the field of Marine Biology , oceanography and marine geology.
Design under the direction of Yuri Roerich Sapozhkova [ Юрия Константиновича Сапожкова] started in CDB "Ruby" , after which the development of broadcasting and completed in the CPU "Wave" . The first prototype submersibles "North- 2 " was built in 1968 at the Leningrad Novo- Admiralty enterprise , and in 1970 it was launched , has passed state tests in the Black Sea and was transferred into trial operation PINRO then . Knipovich Ministry of Fisheries . After successful tests and operation built a second copy of the " North- 2bis " .

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ПА пр.1825 "Север-2"

Research pr.1825 PA "North -2" [also Sever-2] – Translated from Russian with errors.

In the mid -1960s for the Ministry of Fisheries to monitor the commercial concentrations of fish , work gear, taking soil samples and study the behavior of marine animals at depths up to 2000 meters, CDB "Ruby" , based on the conceptual design developed in the " Giprorybflot " drafted a submersible in 1825 .

The project in 1825 included almost all elements of the submarine, so it can be considered the first deep-water submarines.
Rugged cylindrical, spherical extremities and internal frames, divided into three rooms. For surveillance in a rugged, there are three nasal window diameter of 120 mm, two at the top of the chassis and two on the bottom. The bow section – researchers, medium – control module, the feed – hardware.
Immersing the machine is filling 3 CCH (stern and two on-board), and the ascent of blowing compressed air.
Power Systems unit is carried out by 4 groups AB, located behind.


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1985 – Reef and Walrus Submersibles – (Soviet)

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Reef Submersible. [ПА “Риф”.]

Submersibles "Reef" and "Walrus". In the early 1980s, in the Experimental Design Bureau of special technical means was drafted submersible submarines for underwater works, maintenance of building and control of subsea pipelines, cable lines, waterworks, their maintenance. For this project were built two devices "Reef" and "Walrus" .

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In 1985 and 1986 it was built two devices "Reef" and "Walrus" strong body feature 400 mm portholes and manipulator.

ПА "Риф" и "Морж" -translated from Russian with errors.
PA "Reef" and "Walrus"
In 1985, the Experimental Design Bureau of special technical equipment for the Ministry of Fisheries of the USSR was drafted submersible submarine for underwater works, maintenance of building and control of subsea pipelines, cable lines, waterworks maintenance.
Under this project for the Sevastopol base "hydronauts" were built two research PA "Reef" and "Walrus".
In addition to the tasks of PA "Reef" and "Walrus" could take samples of water, soil, benthos, as well as conducted underwater video and photo shoots.
Rugged devices cylindrical, with external frames. The bow of the two flat window with a diameter of 40 cm. More windows 7 located in the wheelhouse.
On the bow console light body, front portholes, manipulating device with 6 degrees of freedom and a powerful light with a camera. Management swivel nozzle, storage containers and manipulating device by means of the hydraulic system at the bottom of the unit.

Research PA "Reef" was built in Moscow in the Experimental Design Bureau of special technical equipment in 1985 and transported to the base of Sevastopol "hydronauts."
In 1992, after the collapse of the USSR Research PA "Reef" was handed over to Ukraine. Currently, the PA "Reef" is at the disposal of the Research Center of the Armed Forces of Ukraine "State Oceanarium". The support of the PA "Reef" is an old Soviet diving boat, renamed "Pochaev".

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Research PA "Walrus"
Гл.03-16 Морж –  Research PA "Walrus" was built in Moscow in the Experimental Design Bureau of special technical equipment in 1986 and transported to the base of Sevastopol "hydronauts." Performs works on the Black Sea in the interests of the USSR Ministry of Fisheries.

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In 1991, the UPA "Walrus" was bought. Today ASO "Walrus" is used in the programs of the International center of underwater Stenmar Group. Tourists make more than 100 dives a year, inspecting sunken ships at the bottom of Loch Lynn.
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1987 – Rus and 1989 – Consul Submersibles – (Soviet)

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Translated from Russian here as at 2011.

pr.16810 "Rus" [пр.16810 "Русь"]
pr.16811 "Consul" [пр.16811 "Консул"]

Manned deep-propelled underwater vehicle / ship 3 rank – a standalone deep-sea vehicle.  The project unit developed SPMDB "Malachite" (St. Petersburg).  Design submersibles on the instructions of the Soviet Navy and is designed to dive to a depth of 6000 m pr.16810 started in 1984 SPMDB "Malachite" under the leadership of V.G.Markova (1993 – E.M.Razumihin) .  The design of the unit took part in the Central Research Institute of Structural Materials "Prometheus", NGO "Screw" CRI "Aurora" CRI "Morphyspribor" NGO "Nord", NGO "Proletarian plant" and the NGO "Electrical Equipment".  Technical project pr.18810 device developed by order of the Soviet Navy led V.G.Markova in 1987. At the same time a draft apparatus with improved performance characteristics (future pr.16811).  In 1989 he released a working design documentation of the adjusted pr.16810.  In 1989, the same correction is made sea exploration project to the requirements of the Maritime Register of the USSR and the working design documentation released pr.16811.  Customer second unit (pr.16811 "Consul") until 1992 – the Ministry of Geology of the USSR, since 1992 – Rosnedra.

Preparation for construction of machines and pr.16810 pr.16811 started on the "Admiralty Shipyards" in 1989 and in 1991-1992  respectively.  The official laying of the unit AC-37 "Russia" pr.16810 held on 1 June 1992 in the workshop №12 (MSP-125 – a site of deep-sea vehicles) "Admiralty Shipyards".  The test apparatus AC-37 "Russia" started in 1998, launching made May 20, 1999 In 2001, the unit made the first dive in the Baltic Sea.  Factory performance and state testing apparatus "Russia" held in the Baltic Sea, which is not allowed to carry out tests with a maximum depth of immersion.  During state testing was performed checking emergency surfacing device with impact cap shunting the ballast hopper (iron shot) and returns the device to the base setting to trim weights.  Such tests are carried out for the first time.  The Commission took experienced deep Autonomous unit "Rus" into trial operation in the Russian Navy in the Baltic Sea with limited depth reached on state tests.  In accordance with the decision Glavnokoma Navy and director of the Russian Shipbuilding Agency № 743/5/1245 on November 3, 2000 the unit experienced dive to a depth of 6,000 meters was carried out.  The same decision was made by the State Commission proposal to perform the modernization work on the unit "Rus", and on board the carrier pr.141 followed by deep-sea diving in the 3000 m and 6000 m in the Atlantic Ocean.

 In 2001-2005,  unit AC-37 "Russia" is being upgraded, the possibility to bring it pr.16811.  In 2005, the unit "Rus" to dive to a depth of 3600 m (ist. – Burilichev A., interviews).  After making the deep sea diving in December 2006 in the Azores unit in February 2007 adopted by the Russian Navy.

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[translated] Devices equipped pr.16810 and pr.16811 unique complex manipulators.  The structure of the manipulator system includes two executive body made of titanium, remote control and two defining authority.  Manipulative complex designed by the Department of SM4-2 Bauman MSTU, head of works – V. Chelyshev.

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Consul   pr.16811 1989.

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1987 – MIR-1 and 2 Deep Submersibles – (Finnish/Soviet)

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MIR (SUBMERSIBLE)
Mir is a self-propelled Deep Submergence Vehicle. The project was initially developed by the USSR Academy of Sciences (now the Russian Academy of Sciences) along with Design Bureau Lazurith. Later two vehicles were ordered from Finland. The Mir 1 and Mir 2, delivered in 1987, were designed and built by the Finnish company Rauma-Repola's Oceanics subsidiary. The project was carried out under the supervision of constructors and engineers of the Shir-shov Institute of Oceanology. The vessels are designed to be used for scientific research. They might also be used to assist in submarine rescue operations, although they do not have the capacity to take anybody aboard when underwater. The carrier and command centre of both Mir submersibles is the RN Akademik Mstislav Keldysh. Currently the two Mir units are operated by the Russian Academy of Sciences. The MIR submersibles can dive to a maximum depth of 6,000 metres (19,685 ft). This makes them two of only seven manned submersibles in the world that can dive beyond 3,000 metres (9,843 ft), the others being the US submersibles Alvin, Sea Cliff and Deepstar 20000, the Japanese owned Shinkai and the French owned Nautile. Up to 98 % of the world's oceans are no deeper than 6,000 metres. All these deep-ocean submersibles utilize three-person crews. Traditionally, the personnel sphere of a deep sea submersible is manufactured of titanium plates that are welded together. On Mir, the personnel sphere is made of a maraging steel alloy that has 10 % better strength/weight ratio than titanium. This alloy contains about 30 % cobalt and smaller amounts of nickel, chrome and titanium. Two hemispheres were made by casting and machining, and then bolted together, thus avoiding welded joints. The resulting construction is close to the density of water, thus making it easier to move in different depths. Additional buoyancy is provided by 8 cubic metres (280 cu ft) of syntactic foam. Unlike other Deep Submergence Vehicles that use iron ballast to reach the ocean floor, the buoyancy and depth is adjusted by ballast tanks.

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Early illustration of MIR-1.

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Manipulator arm in action.

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Translated from Russian with errors from here.

Research PA "Mir-1" and "Mir-2"
In 1987, the USSR Academy of Sciences commissioned the Finnish company Rauma-Repola, the Institute of Oceanology. PP Shirshov, two deep-water apparatus. Subsequently, the PA received the names of "Mir-1" and "Mir-2". Oversaw the creation of devices, Professor, Doctor of Technical Sciences, Igor E. Mikhaltsov. Submersibles were built in less than a year.
To carry the "world" in the same 1987 in Finland was converted research vessel "Akademik Mstislav Keldysh".

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MIR – scheme for the site
1 – sonar; 2 – flash; 3 – bow ballast sphere; 4 -Easy housing; 5 – robust housing; 6 – Sun; 7 – eye; 8 – lateral thrusters; 9 – Emergency buoy; 10 – the main ballast tanks; 11 – stabilizer; 12 – hydrophones; 13 – aft ballast tank; 14 -marshevy mover; 15 – rotating rod; 1b – swing frame; 17 -manipulator; 18 – sensor data acquisition system; 19 – bunker samples; 20 – hopper with shot; 21 – cylinder high pressure air; 22 – skiing; 23 – pump sea water; 24 – access covers; 25 – Reset of the outer hull; 26 – storage boxes.

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Deep-sea testing of the "MIR" is held in the Atlantic Ocean, with the Mir-1 sank to a depth of 6170 meters, and the Mir-2 at 6120 meters.
Robust housing with a diameter of 2.1 meters and ballast sphere made ​​of nickel steel with a yield strength – 150 kg / mm ² habitable sphere has an inner diameter of 2.1 meters. The central window has a diameter of 200 mm, and two lateral – 120 mm.
Stainless steel frame connects four spherical body in a single structure. The upper part of the reinforced frame ends with a lifting device, which fits with the capture of a cable tripping unit (SPU). At the bottom of the frame rests on skis syntactics and fiberglass.
Ballast spheres can accommodate about a ton of water. Lightweight body in the form of elongated droplets covers the entire inner frame and the stuffing machine. The halves of the housing vykleeny syntactics and Kevlar. In the stern is set empennage, wing it turns on a horizontal plane, allowing the exchange rate stabilization. Under the lightweight body are the main ballast tanks, blown with compressed air.
Screw the propulsion in nozzles, rotating hydraulic motors. Nozzle main engine rotates within ± 60 °, and the gondola on-board engines are turned in the range + 110 ° + -60 ° lateral thrusters. Through aft propulsion unit speeds up to 5 knots. Side thrusters provide a speed of about 1 knot.
The energy complex consists of 2 groups of nickel-iron battery capacity of 700 A / h, 120V motors and nourishes the 1st and 2nd hydraulic systems, outdoor lighting, flash, communications equipment, navigation, measuring sensors.
Emergency nickel-cadmium AB in the field of manned feeds motor third hydraulic system, which is used for emergency relief movers, hands of manipulators, the lower the battery box and emergency buoy with a rope guide.
Solid ballast – nickel fraction – held electromagnets in fiberglass silos.
Life support system PA consists of cassettes with lithium hydroxide or sodium, oxygen tanks with regulators and flow control devices for the gas medium.
From 1987 to 1991, "MIR" to board the vessel "Mstislav Keldysh" dive in the Atlantic Indian and Pacific Oceans.
In 1989-98 "MIR" tracked state, lying at the bottom of the Norwegian Sea at a depth of 1700 meters submarine "Komsomolets".
In 1997, on board the "Worlds" were filmed footage of the film "Ghosts of the Abyss. Titanic. "
In 2000, on board the "MIR" was surveyed, lying on the ground SSGN K-141 "Kursk".
In 2002, "Worlds" sank to the bottom of the Atlantic lying on the German battleship "Bismarck"
August 2, 2007 during the expedition "Arktika-2007" to "Worlds" for the first time in the world was reached the bottom of the Arctic Ocean at the North Pole, where he placed the Russian flag and a capsule with a message to future generations.
In 2007, the Institute of Oceanology. PP Shirshov due to inadequate funding of the Institute gave support vessel "Akademik Mstislav Keldysh" in the charter.
In 2008, "MIR" examined the status of Lake Baikal.
In 2011, with the help of the "world" to explore the underwater world of Lake Geneva. After this expedition sets deposited in the Kaliningrad Museum of the World Ocean.
December 17 was moved aboard the carrier submersibles "Amber", owned by Google.

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Paper model of MIR-2.


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1977 – Kashalot / UNIFORM Submersible – (Soviet)

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"Kashalot" – UNIFORM class Soviet Submarine Nr.1901.

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A model showing the landing skids and manipulator arms.

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Name:     Kashalot / UNIFORM Nr.1910

Builders:     Soviet Union
Operators:      Soviet Navy,  Russian Navy
Built:     1977-1991
In service:     1986-
Planned:     3
Completed:     2
Cancelled:     1

Deep-diving Soviet submarine.  Similar to the US Navy's NR-1 in that it is a deep-diving nuclear submarine with bottoming skids and manipulator arms. Used in secret Cold War operations. Little is known about this class of submarine.


See other early Underwater Robots here.