1967 – Space Work Platform – Bendix Company (American)

bendix mockup 67 1967   Space Work Platform   Bendix Company (American)

SPACE WORK PLATFORM
 A self-propelled space work platform for astronauts based aboard a "mother spaceship" has been designed by the Bendix Corporation's Missile Systems division in Mishawaka, Ind.
 A full-scale mock-up of the space vehicle, prepared under a $40.000 contract from the Applied Physics Laboratory of Johns Hopkins University, which was responsible for the basic concepts, is now being studied by officials of the National Aeronautics and Space Administration in Washington.
 The EVA (Extra-Vehicular Activity) work platform is designed to help spacemen perform a variety of missions such as inspecting and maintaining orbiting objects, rescuing marooned astronauts, assembling structures in space and transferring objects from one orbit to another or one spacecraft to another.
 The Bendix EVA is a one-man open platform that allows an astronaut to maneuver through space, anchor the vehicle to other objects in space and perform various tasks with two electrically powered mechanical "hands." It can range a maximum of three nautical miles from the mother ship and carries sufficient oxygen to sustain the astronaut for eight hours.

Source: Hobbs Daily News, Wed Oct 4, 1967.


 1967   Space Work Platform   Bendix Company (American)

Modules available to the platform include the long range rendezvous module, the extended propulsion capability module, and the payload module. The long range rendezvous module is required for missions requiring excursions in excess of 10,000 feet. The module provides radar parameters of azimuth, elevation, range, and range-rate for computer-controlled rendezvous. Radar maximum range is 250 miles. The extended propulsion capability module provides an increase in available delta velocity from 300 to 1085 fps. The delta velocity for the full-up platform is 975 fps. The payload module mounted on the floor of the platform provides storage for tools, spare parts, rescue equipment, repair kits, test equipment, and special work aids.
Stabilization is provided by automatic attitude control.
All commands initiated by controller (attitude or translational) actuation result in full-on thruster firing. No proportional rate command is provided.
The platform is capable of serving as a portable worksite and can be fitted with manipulator arms to increase the reach and maintain and amplify forces provided by the astronaut. Worksite anchors are provided to connect the platform to structures. These consist of adhesive pads at the ends of three rods extending forward from the platform. The pads contain electrically heated epoxy adhesives and are left on the surface at undocking.


 1967   Space Work Platform   Bendix Company (American)

Bendix Corporation Module EVA Work Platform

This system proposed by Bendix and described in Section 4.4 is a configuration for an EVA work platform to be used by a suited astronaut in an orbital operation. The design consists of an assembly of five modules which are removable and interchangeable. As proposed, the astronaut conducts most of his activity from the platform; if he were equipped with a portable life support system, he could leave the platform if he desired. The platform could perform for a period of about 4 hours normally (extended to 8 hours with supplemental life support) (see Figure 5-17a).

The platform incorporates two bilateral (master-slave) manipulators. These manipulators are capable of magnifying or locking forces and extending the astronaut's reach. The manipulators have the following characteristics:
- Electrically driven
- Force amplification ratio: 2:1
- Maximum forces at slave: 25 pounds
- Working volume at master: 1 cubic foot
- Working volume at slave: approximately 525 cubic feet (5 foot radius)


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1964 – SCHMOO Unmanned Space Repair Craft – Lockheed Company (American)

Space Schmoo . . . If you're a collector of acronyms (initials that make words) here's a beaut: Schmoo (for Space Cargo Handler and Manipulator for Orbital Operations). It's a vehicle that was designed by Lockheed Missiles & Space Co.

SCHMOO 1964 x640 1964   SCHMOO Unmanned Space Repair Craft   Lockheed Company (American)

Caption: This is the age of monsters in space also. A four-armed SCHMOO approaches a nuclear-powered Snap vehicle in this artist's concept by Lockheed Missiles and Space company of Sunnyvale. Such an unmanned repair craft will be needed to service other spacecraft, particularly those using fuel dangerous to man, according to Lockheed, producer of the Polaris missile and the Agena satellite. A space station, shown in the background – with a planet further distant would be the mother ship for the remotely controlled SCHMOO. Repairs to a spacecraft would be done with the aid of a television camera on the SCHMOO.

Sunnyvale, Calif. – When a space station needs to haul aboard fuel or other supplies . . . when it wants to make repairs to another spacecraft . . . when it wants to clear the area of dead satellite! . . . How will It do It? Scientists and engineers at Lockheed Missiles & Space Co. today announced plans for a fix-it and do-everything vehicle which could be sent out from the space station and be controlled remotely by radio and television. With apologies to comic strip artist Al Capp, this Space Cargo Handler and Manipulator for Orbital Operations is called SCHMOO for short. Like Al Capp's character, spelled Shmoo, the Lockheed SCHMOO would be a pear-shaped creature, though somewhat larger – 15 feet wide, 18 feet long and 12 feet high. It would have four mechanical arms with hands capable of doing anything from tugging a vehicle to the mother space station, to replacing a black box of electronic equipment. The SCHMOO is a serious concept which, in the opinion of its three principal designers, Charles E. Vivian, William H. Wilkins and Louis L. Haas, can perform many difficult tasks which await the occupants of space stations. SCHMOO can be designed also to be controlled from the earth. A repair and service vehicle which does not carry a human operator and which can be controlled remotely has certain advantages. Handling nuclear vehicles, for instance. Suppose the space station occupants want to make repairs to a nuclear powered neighbor. First of all, the space station would want to stay at a safe distance. And to send a man to the nuclear vehicle would require him to be heavily shielded in a repair vehicle, still at some risk to him. The remotely controlled repair vehicle, however, could perform the task miles from the space station. Use of cryogenic (super cold) fuels, such as liquid hydrogen at 423 degrees F. below zero, will become more and more common with spacecraft. Handling of such fuels, however is hazardous to human beings. Suppose that cryogenic fuel is stored in a orbiting tanker, and that the space station is given the task of transferring some of this tricky fuel to another spacecraft. The remotely controlled SCHMOO could do the job. As conceived by Lockheed, two of the mechanical arms would be for grasping the object in space, and the other two highly articulated arms would be for performing more intricate and delicate tasks. The SCHMOO would be propelled by two engines, and would be equipped with 16 "microthrust" engines for attitude and position control of the vehicle. Floodlights mounted on the aluminum body of the SCHMOO would illuminate the area of the target vehicle with which the SCHMOO was concerning  itself. Clear viewing by the operators located in the space station would be provided by a three-dimensional color TV system and a two-dimensional TV system, both mounted on the manipulating vehicle. Electrical power would be supplied by fuel cells, and the  designers have even thought of a tool bit in which the mechanical genie would store its wrenches and other working devices. Considerable attention has been devoted to design of the manipulator systems. The manipulators would be more versatile and stronger than human hands. Moreover, to assist in dexterity and handling capability, the SCHMOO designers propose a computer system which will translate into action many of the operator's desires.
In more detail, what are some of the envisioned uses of the Space Cargo Handler and Manipulator for Orbital Operations? Here are some excerpts from the report prepared by the Lockheed designers: Space Tug Operations: There is no doubt that future space stations of any appreciable size will be assembled in space from forms or materials placed in parking orbits by multiple-launch operations . . . space tugs or tractors will have to be developed (to assemble these parts) … The SCHMOO has this capability and can operate in space before or after astronauts arrive on location. Cargo Handling: Extended space missions will require  import of food and supplies at various times by means of ground launches . . . The SCHMOO can either bring the  cargo vehicle to the space station for unloading or go to the cargo vehicle, unload the required supplies, and return to the space station with only the amount for which storage space is available in the station. Refueling: The logistics of fuel supply for extra-terrestrial missions will impose the requirement for fuel tankers in parking orbit. The SCHMOO can either take the spacecraft to the fuel tanker or take the tanker to the spacecraft. The SCHMOO will use its manipulators to position both vehicles, connect the required transfer lines, and transfer the fuel. Service and Maintenance of Orbiting Equipment: The SCHMOO can investigate meteoroid damage, replace components, patch holes caused by meteoroids, change batteries, exchange electronic components, and so on.
  Rescue:  At least smoe aspects of the over-all safety program (in space operations) will require the capability to rescue an astronaut who has experienced an accident. A case in point would occur when an astronaut in his space suit working in free space loses his hold, or his lifeline to the station, or his ability to maneuver with his self-contained propulsion system. The SCHMOO would stand ready to retrieve the astronaut and return him to the space station. Checkout: (For checking out the equipment on a satellite or other spacecraft) SCHMOO can transport and attach a separate pod which will include stimuli, pressurization equipment, additional telemetry, and command equipment for remote control from either a manned satellite or Earth. In addition, this pod could include a complete checkout computer to control all checkout necessary to test and evaluate flight equipment. Scavenger Operations: Today there are more than 250 satellites, boosters, and parts of boosters orbiting the earth . . . the amount of junk remaining in orbit . . . eventually will constitute at least a nuisance if not a hazard to subsequent operations (SCHMOO will be able) to track down and remove any objects located within the region of operations and posing a threat to the successful out come of a space mission. . . The method of accomplishment basically will involve destroying an object's orbiting capability by slowing it down sufficiently to enter a destructive orbit burnup will follow as it enters the earth's atmosphere.

Source: Santa Cruz Sentinel, Oct 14, 1964, "SCHMOO The Space Age's Mr. Fixit",  By Cecily Browntone AP


     LOCKHEED SPACE CARGO HANDLER AND
   MANIPULATOR FOR ORBITAL OPERATIONS (SCHMOO)

   The SCHMOO system was described to the 1964 proceedings of the 12th Conference on Remote Systems Technology as an unmanned vehicle capable of performing operations on a remote hostile spacecraft (i.e., a nuclear power type) while being controlled from an earth or orbiting base station (Vivian, 1964).

   The SCHMOO, as shown in Figure 5-19, is an oblate spheroid with a width of 15 feet, length of 18 feet, and height of 12 feet. Its dry weight is approximately 7,500 pounds, and-its wet weight is 11,300 pounds.

 1964   SCHMOO Unmanned Space Repair Craft   Lockheed Company (American)

Subsystem Description
Translation/Stabilization/Control Subsystem
Propulsion – This system consists of two pressure-fed hypergolic, bi-propellant reaction jets, each capable of delivering 200 pounds of thrust.
Attitude Control Propulsion – The attitude control system utilizes the same propellants as the propulsion units. It has 16 thrusters clustered in groups of four which provide the attitude and control. Their levels range from 1/2 to 1 pound.
Control – The control system for SCHMOO is comprised of two independent but cooperative subsystems. One is a computer-controlled guidance and attitude control system. It used a precision narrow beam (1 degree) radar in conjunction with the three-dimensional television monitor for locating the target vehicle, determining closure trajectory, closing, and attaching SCHMOO to the target vehicle. The computer is located on-board to reduce the number of communication channels required to operate SCHMOO.

 The other control subsystem, which uses the same computer as used in guidance, is concerned with the operation of the manipulators. The manipulator control is a digital position differential system with a position control and monitoring accuracy of 0.1 percent. It has a rate application, within mechanical system limits, proportional to the error differential.

Actuator Subsystem

 The vehicle is equipped with four articulated manipulator arms. Two arms are located on the lower  portion of the vehicle and are used for docking and stabilizing the vehicle at the worksite. The other two provide the manipulative capability. The SCHMOO arms are patterned after the General Mills Model 500 manipulators. A description of the arms is given in Table 5-5.

schmoo txt p154a x640 1964   SCHMOO Unmanned Space Repair Craft   Lockheed Company (American)

Visual Comminications Video

 The SCHMOO is equipped with two complete, independent television systems which provide both visual monitoring of the final stages of approach to a target and observation of the tasks performed by the manipulators. One has three-dimensional color transmission with two camera pods mounted on opposite sides of the radar tracking antenna and interconnected so that adjustment of focal length automatically adjusts parallax.
The second system employs two independent two-dimensional black-and-white camera pods located on the "backs" of the manipulator hands for direct monitoring of the hands; this system also can be used as a backup for the three-dimensional color system without automatic parallax control.


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1961 – Humpty Dumpty Space Capsule – Douglas Aircraft Company (American)

 1961   Humpty Dumpty Space Capsule   Douglas Aircraft Company (American)

SANTA MONICA DIVISION
DOUGLAS AIRCRAFT COMPANY, INC.
SANTA MONICA, CALIFORNIA
NONANTHROPOMORPHIC SPACE SUIT
The "Humpty-Dumpty, " a nonanthropomorphic space suit (capsule), consists of an egg-shaped cylinder capable of supporting at least one man who is engaged in assembly, maintenance, or similar-type tasks in outer space (see figure 1). The capsule itself contains an ecological system capable of maintaining near ideal environmental conditions for approximately 30 hours. On the internal walls of the vehicle there are rotating panels which allow the astronaut complete monitoring of the environmental conditions of the vehicle and also afford him direct feedback as to the ongoing state of affairs of his propulsion system and many mechanical appendages. The astronaut sitting at his central control panel map at his discretion, rotate the wall panels to a position which is most advantageous to him for the direction in which he is facing. The rotating panels are necessitated by the fact that the viewport of the vehicle completely circles the astronaut. Due to radiation hazards the viewport is covered by a rotating shield which may be positioned by the astronaut to face in any direction.
Fastened to this shield are two floodlights for operations conducted in the dark. Three of the specialized mechanical arms of this "astro-tug" maybe rotated through 360 degrees around the tug and thus afford the occupant complete maneuverability without actually rotating the vehicle itself. These specialized arms have specially equipped hands composed of tools which may be utilized in outer space—e.g.,
drill, acetylene torch, paint and plastic applicator, screw driver, etc. Three fixed arms on the base of the vehicle are theoretically constructed to accomplish operations which call for powerful movements similar to those necessary for positioning two fuel tanks together, holding the astro-tug to a second vehicle while construction or maintenance is performed, and the like. Gripping is done through the use of finger-like clamps on the outer portion of the limb.

To effect propulsion and guidance of the  system, three nozzles on rotating spheres are used.
Two of these nozzles are located on the "x" center of gravity axis. These are responsable for the main propulsion of the unit. The third unit is at the bottom of the capsule and may be used to correct maneuvers conductive to tumbling or, if this vehicle is to be used in a gravity environment, this third unit may be used to suspend the capsule above the surface of the gravity environment.
While the astronaut is given complete manual control of the vehicles through the propulsion system, he may also utilize the inertial platform of the capsule to maintain any position automatically and thus free all six mechanical arms for a complex task. Control of all six mechanIcal arms is accomplished through the central control  panel via fingertip control. The arms act in response to any movement of the hand.
Two internally sealed, anthropomorphic-type arms have been included on the vehicle so that, in case there is some specialized or precise type of task to be done which is not a direct capability of the mechanical arms, the operator may insert his own arms into these flexible shieldings and perform the operation.
Access to this vehicle is obtained either through a hatch constructed in the plexiglas front or through a doubly scaled hatch on the top the capsule.

PROJECT MERCURY CONVERTED CAPSULE
A second concept for a nonantropomorphic-type space suit would essentially be constructed from off-the-shelf items. It would be possible to utilize the Project Mercury Space Capsule and re-entry body as a space suit for assembly, maintenance, or similar-type functions. To do this, the major additions to the system would merely be a translucent plastic observation port on the forward portion of the capsule and an assembly of mechanical arms to be attached in place of the parachute package. These arms could in turn be foldable into their shaft holder. Figure 2 illustrates the design configuration. Modifications of the capsule world also be necessary in that the fuel tanks for propulsion would have to be enlarged to allow maneuvers in space. The interior would have tope slightly rearranged to allow inclusion of controls and panels associated with the mechanical appendages. While there are many disadvantages to this system (e.g., provisions for stabilization of attachments to a second vehicle while accomplishing tasks are presently not considered feasible), the most immediate advantages are the decreased cost of development and the fact that this vehicle may be included in a satellite system for utilisation as an escape vehicle which is readily altered, while spaceborne, into an astro-tug.
The feasibility of a capsule of this nature must be considered in any future analysis of an extra-vehicular space suit.

Source: "Survey of Remote Handling in Space", D. Frederick Baker,  USAF, 1962


douglas humpty dumpty p145a x640 1961   Humpty Dumpty Space Capsule   Douglas Aircraft Company (American)

•    Douglas Aircraft Company Humpty Dumpty Space Capsule
The Humpty Dumpty capsule is another non-anthropomorphic concept. The craft is egg-shaped and is capable of supporting one man in space for approximately 30 hours in a self-contained environment. Three stabilizer and three manipulator arms are mounted to the outside of the craft.
There are also two anthropomorphic gloves mounted on the craft through which the astronaut may perform certain functions.
This concept (rigure 5-16) was also proposed about 1960.


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1960 – Project Mercury Converted Capsule – NASA (American)

 1960   Project Mercury Converted Capsule   NASA (American)

PROJECT MERCURY CONVERTED CAPSULE
A second concept for a nonantropomorphic-type space suit would essentially be constructed from off-the-shelf items. It would be possible to utilize the Project Mercury Space Capsule and re-entry body as a space suit for assembly, maintenance, or similar-type functions. To do this, the major additions to the system would merely be a translucent plastic observation port on the forward portion of the capsule and an assembly of mechanical arms to be attached in place of the parachute package. These arms could in turn be foldable into their shaft holder. Figure 2 illustrates the design configuration. Modifications of the capsule world also be necessary in that the fuel tanks for propulsion would have to be enlarged to allow maneuvers in space. The interior would have tope slightly rearranged to allow inclusion of controls and panels associated with the mechanical appendages. While there are many disadvantages to this system (e.g., provisions for stabilization of attachments to a second vehicle while accomplishing tasks are presently not considered feasible), the most immediate advantages are the decreased cost of development and the fact that this vehicle may be included in a satellite system for utilisation as an escape vehicle which is readily altered, while spaceborne, into an astro-tug.
The feasibility of a capsule of this nature must be considered in any future analysis of an extra-vehicular space suit.

Source: "Survey of Remote Handling in Space", D. Frederick Baker,  USAF, 1962


mercury capsule cutaway x640 1960   Project Mercury Converted Capsule   NASA (American)

A cutaway of the Mercury Space Capsule.


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1961 – Orbital Space Tug – General Electric (American)

 1961   Orbital Space Tug   General Electric  (American)

GE Orbital Space Tug

MISSILE AND SPACE VEHICLE DEPARTMENT
GENERAL ELECTRIC COMPANY
PHILADELPHIA, PENNSYLVANIA
INTRODUCTION
The General Electric Company has been active in the manipulator and remote-handling equipment fields for several years. primarily in connection with its nuclear laboratories and test facilities. The application of remote-handling equipment to operations in space and lunar situations is a logical extension the work in remote handling. Remote handling will play a definite role in the exploration of space. Investigations of remote-handling equipment for space operations have indicated that considerable research and development work will be required to produce functional remote-handling systems capable of performing the necessary tasks in space.
A great deal of material has been written about the hazardous nature of the space environment, which precludes the necessity of discussing the reason for remote handling in space. Remote-handling equipment should and will be used wherever possible to eliminate the necessity for directly exposing man to space. Normally, the first approach to design for remote handling for earthbound situations is to avoid it whenever possible. The opposite approach, to make maximum use of remote-handling design principles in designing space vehicles and equipment, may well be required.
The remote-handling equipment still require new design approaches of a revolutionary rather than evolutionary nature.
TYPICAL SPACE TASKS
Many tasks in space may have to be performed by remote-handling equipment. In the near earth orbital region, which ranges roughly from 400 to 600 miles above the earth, there are many proposed programs for satellites, manned vehicles, and space stations which will require utilization of manipulators and remote-handling equipment. Such tasks as assembling and disassembling, loading and unloading. inspecting, testing, handling, checkout, and servicing can be performed by remote means. Remote equipment will undoubtedly play an an part in the maintenance of satellites and space stations (see figure 1). Manipulators might be used as a device for grappling, docking, and mating between vehicles or subassembly sections. Several conceptual vehicles for orbital operations, such as the popular space tug have included manipulators as an integral part of their design.

LUNAR MISSIONS
The broad area of lunar missions will include many applications for remote-handling equipment. In addition to the tasks already mentioned, exploration, sampling,  and experimentation might be performed remotely. The construction and servicing of lunar base facilities,  particularly nuclear power systems, may well be handled by remote equipment. A simple, compact, highty dextrous manipulator may be required as an integral part of a space suit to overcome the problem of the gloved hand and to provide a space-suited man with some semblance of manual dexterity. Wheeled or tracked vehicles capable of lunar surface mobility will use remote-handling equipment to perform a variety of functions (see figure 2). As the conquest of space moves from exploration through economic development to mature economic operation, the projected advances in the state-of-the-art of remote-handling equipment dictate that much equipment will be used to an ever-increasing extent in space.
PROBLEM AREAS
There are, of course, many problem areas associated with the design and development of remote-handling systems for space applications. A rather detailed analysis of the remote-handling tasks for each specific mission will be required. The problems of force feedback and tactile perception are important in terms of the information furnished to the operator of remote-handling equipment and manipulators, as well as the "body image" and "frame of reference" problems. The competent operation of remote-handling equipment is heavily dependent upon visual access. Should this access be remote or direct using optical or television techniques? The areas of output control, control transducers, and control actuation requires considerable study. Present control actuation methods for manipulators do not appear operable in the space environment. Pneumatic or hot gas actuation systems seem to hold promise for application to manipulators. Similarly, the results of concurrent work in the fields of materials, structures, mechanisms, bearings, and seals for space vehicles and equipment will have to be implemented. Special effort may be required in these areas to solve problems peculiar to remote-handling equipment. Early recognition and definition of all these problem areas are instrumental to development work for space remote-handling systems. Basic research will undoubtedly be required in many of these areas.


baker p25a GE x640 1961   Orbital Space Tug   General Electric  (American)

GENERAL DESIGN
Many general design characteristics of manipulators and associated equipment are already apparent. Early space manipulators are expected to be simple with somewhat limited dexterity and force reflection capability. They will be capable of simple, basic movements and operations. The relative simplicity of these early models will necessarily be due to problems with such items as materials, bearings, seals, and control actuation. Also, the size and weight of equipment associated with manipulators, particularly electrically controlled manipulators, limit the complexity and dexterity of these early systems since there is a limit to early booster payload capability. Early remote manipulators will probably be used to position, locate, and place in operation special, self self-contained automatic mechanisms or programmed machines capable of specific operations as required by the specific mission in order to provide the overall remote-handling ssytem capabilitys A new approach to the design of this equipment is required using previous designs and configurations are guide lines rather than as first approximations. The established philosophy of designing vehicles and equipment to be handled or operated on by remote means so as to augment the remote-handling equipment itself will have to be used to a very great extent. This includes consideration of such things as grasping points, register points, orientation indicators, and pilot pins.
CONCLUSIONS
As advances are made in the many technologies used in remote handling, equipment will become more complex and capable of a greater variety of operations. The role which remote handling plays in space can be a large and vital one. Just how large depends upon how much timely develupment work can be started to make equipment available when the need for it arises. Careful planning and study, along with the early initiation of development programs, will insure the future of remote-handling equipment in space.

Source: "Survey of Remote Handling in Space", D. Frederick Baker,  USAF, 1962


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